Articles | Volume 18, issue 5
Research article
25 May 2018
Research article |  | 25 May 2018

The Norwegian forecasting and warning service for rainfall- and snowmelt-induced landslides

Ingeborg K. Krøgli, Graziella Devoli, Hervé Colleuille, Søren Boje, Monica Sund, and Inger Karin Engen

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Comparison of landslide forecasting services in Piedmont (Italy) and Norway, illustrated by events in late spring 2013
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Cited articles

Aaheim, A., Romstad, B., and Sælen, H.: Assessment of risks for adaptation to climate change: the case of land-slides, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 15, 763–778,, 2010. 
Aleotti, P.: A warning system for rainfall-induce shallow failures. Engineering Geology, 73, 247–265,, 2004. 
Barfod, E., Müller, K., Saloranta, T., Andersen, J., Orthe, N.K., Wartianen, A., Humstad, T., Myrabø, S., and Engeset, R.: The expert tool XGEO and its application in the Norwegian Avalanche Forecasting Service. Proceeding International Snow Science Workshop Grenoble – Chamonix Mont-Blanc – 2013, available at: (last access: 20 November 2017), 2013. 
Baum, R. L. and Godt, J. W.: Early warning of rainfall-induced shallow landslides and debris flows in the USA, Landslides, 7, 259–272,, 2010. 
Bazin, S.: Guidelines for landslide monitoring and early warning systems in Europe, Design and required technology, Project SafeLand “Living With Landslide Risk in Europe: Assessment, Effects of Global Change, and Risk Management Strategies”, Deliverable 4.8, 153 pp., available at: (last access: 20 November 2017), 2012. 
Short summary
Norway has, since 2013, an operative nation-wide landslide forecasting and early warning system for shallow landslides. The early warning system uses thresholds for soil moisture and water supply from rain and snowmelt to issue warnings to the public and relevant authorities when the risk for landslide hazard is present. The warnings are regional and are issued at Colours are used to symbolize the hazard level.
Final-revised paper