Articles | Volume 15, issue 8
Research article 18 Aug 2015
Research article | 18 Aug 2015
Regional trends and controlling factors of fatal landslides in Latin America and the Caribbean
S. A. Sepúlveda and D. N. Petley
No articles found.
R. N. Parker, G. T. Hancox, D. N. Petley, C. I. Massey, A. L. Densmore, and N. J. Rosser
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 501–525,Short summary
Large earthquakes commonly trigger widespread and destructive landsliding. This paper tests the hypothesis that spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides are determined by both the conditions at the time of the triggering earthquake and the legacy of past events. Our findings emphasise that a lack of understanding of the legacy of damage in hillslopes potentially represents an important source of uncertainty when assessing regional landslide susceptibility.
Related subject area
Landslides and Debris Flows HazardsNepalese landslide information system (NELIS): a conceptual framework for a web-based geographical information system for enhanced landslide risk management in NepalModelling landslide hazards under global changes: the case of a Pyrenean valleyDebris flows recorded in the Moscardo catchment (Italian Alps) between 1990 and 2019The potential of Smartstone probes in landslide experiments: how to read motion dataINSPIRE standards as a framework for artificial intelligence applications: a landslide exampleNew global characterisation of landslide exposureSemi-empirical prediction of dam height and stability of dams formed by rock slope failures in NorwayDetecting precursors of an imminent landslide along the Jinsha RiverA systematic exploration of satellite radar coherence methods for rapid landslide detectionIncluding informal housing in slope stability analysis – an application to a data-scarce location in the humid tropicsStability evaluation and potential failure process of rock slopes characterized by non-persistent fracturesDeriving rainfall thresholds for landsliding at the regional scale: daily and hourly resolutions, normalisation, and antecedent rainfallShear rate effect on the residual strength characteristics of saturated loess in naturally drained ring shear testsAssessment of the physical vulnerability of buildings affected by slow-moving landslidesThe mudflow disaster at Villa Santa Lucía in Chilean Patagonia: understandings and insights derived from numerical simulation and postevent field surveysRainfall and rockfalls in the Canary Islands: assessing a seasonal linkTiming, drivers and impacts of the historic Masiere di Vedana rock avalanche (Belluno Dolomites, NE Italy)Radar coherence and NDVI ratios as landslide early warning indicatorsSensitivity and identifiability of rheological parameters in debris flow modelingAssessing the annual risk of vehicles being hit by a rainfall-induced landslide: a case study on Kennedy Road in Wan Chai, Hong KongTopographic uncertainty quantification for flow-like landslide models via stochastic simulationsGeo-climatic hazards in the eastern subtropical Andes: distribution, climate drivers and trendsA multivariate statistical method for susceptibility analysis of debris flow in southwestern ChinaAnalysis of the instability conditions and failure mode of a special type of translational landslide using long-term monitoring data: a case study of the Wobaoshi landslide (in Bazhong, China)Classification and susceptibility assessment of debris flow based on a semi-quantitative method combination of the fuzzy C-means algorithm, factor analysis and efficacy coefficientErosion after an extreme storm event in an arid fluvial system of the southern Atacama Desert: an assessment of the magnitude, return time, and conditioning factors of erosion and debris flow generationProbabilistic landslide susceptibility analysis in tropical mountainous terrain using the physically based r.slope.stability modelA model for interpreting the deformation mechanism of reservoir landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, ChinaThree-dimensional numerical simulation of mud flow from a tailing dam failure across complex terrainAn improved method of Newmark analysis for mapping hazards of coseismic landslidesLandslide hazard probability and risk assessment at the community level: a case of western Hubei, ChinaBack calculation of the 2017 Piz Cengalo–Bondo landslide cascade with r.avaflow: what we can do and what we can learnDynamic path-dependent landslide susceptibility modellingFrom examination of natural events to a proposal for risk mitigation of lahars by a cellular-automata methodology: a case study for Vascún valley, EcuadorBrief communication: Post-wildfire rockfall risk in the eastern AlpsA new approach to mapping landslide hazards: a probabilistic integration of empirical and physically based models in the North Cascades of Washington, USANumerical modeling using an elastoplastic-adhesive discrete element code for simulating hillslope debris flows and calibration against field experimentsSimulation of fragmental rockfalls detected using terrestrial laser scans from rock slopes in south-central British Columbia, CanadaThe influence of land use and land cover change on landslide susceptibility: a case study in Zhushan Town, Xuan'en County (Hubei, China)GIS-based earthquake-triggered-landslide susceptibility mapping with an integrated weighted index model in Jiuzhaigou region of Sichuan Province, ChinaEfficacy of using radar-derived factors in landslide susceptibility analysis: case study of Koslanda, Sri LankaHow size and trigger matter: analyzing rainfall- and earthquake-triggered landslide inventories and their causal relation in the Koshi River basin, central HimalayaGlobal detection of rainfall-triggered landslide clustersSimultaneous state–parameter estimation of rainfall-induced landslide displacement using data assimilationA remote-sensing-based intensity–duration threshold, Faifa Mountains, Saudi ArabiaSignificance of substrate soil moisture content for rockfall hazard assessmentLandslide susceptibility mapping by using a geographic information system (GIS) along the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (Karakoram Highway), PakistanProbabilistic forecasting of plausible debris flows from Nevado de Colima (Mexico) using data from the Atenquique debris flow, 1955Simple rules to minimise exposure to coseismic landslide hazardA susceptibility-based rainfall threshold approach for landslide occurrence
Sansar Raj Meena, Florian Albrecht, Daniel Hölbling, Omid Ghorbanzadeh, and Thomas Blaschke
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 301–316,Short summary
Comprehensive and sustainable landslide management, including identification of landslide-susceptible areas, requires a lot of organisations and people to collaborate efficiently. In this study, we propose a concept for a system that provides users with a platform to share the location of landslide events for further collaboration in Nepal. The system can be beneficial for specifying potentially risky regions and consequently, the development of risk mitigation strategies at the local level.
Séverine Bernardie, Rosalie Vandromme, Yannick Thiery, Thomas Houet, Marine Grémont, Florian Masson, Gilles Grandjean, and Isabelle Bouroullec
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 147–169,Short summary
The present study evaluates the impacts of land use and climate change, based on scenarios, on landslide hazards in a Pyrenean valley from the present to 2100. The results demonstrate the influence of land cover on slope stability through the presence and type of forest. Climate change may have a significant impact because of the increase of the soil water content. The results indicate that the occurrence of landslide hazards in the future is expected to increase.
Lorenzo Marchi, Federico Cazorzi, Massimo Arattano, Sara Cucchiaro, Marco Cavalli, and Stefano Crema
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 87–97,Short summary
Debris-flow research requires experimental data that are difficult to collect because of the intrinsic characteristics of these hazardous processes. This paper presents debris-flow data recorded in the Moscardo Torrent (Italian Alps) between 1990 and 2019. In this time interval, 30 debris flows were observed. The paper presents data on triggering rainfall, flow velocity, peak discharge, and volume for the monitored hydrographs.
J. Bastian Dost, Oliver Gronz, Markus C. Casper, and Andreas Krein
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3501–3519,Short summary
We show the potential to observe the unconfined internal-motion behaviour of single clasts in landslides using a wireless sensor measuring acceleration and rotation. The probe's dimensions are 10 mm × 55 mm. It measures up to 16 g and 2000° s−1 with a 100 Hz sampling rate. From the data, we derive transport mode, velocity, displacement and 3D trajectories of several probes. Results are verified by high-speed image analysis and laser distance measurements.
Gioachino Roberti, Jacob McGregor, Sharon Lam, David Bigelow, Blake Boyko, Chris Ahern, Victoria Wang, Bryan Barnhart, Clinton Smyth, David Poole, and Stephen Richard
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3455–3483,Short summary
We show how INSPIRE, the European initiative to standardize data across borders, can be used to produce explainable AI-based applications. We do so by producing landslide susceptibility maps for the Veneto region in Italy. EU countries are mandated by law to implement the INSPIRE data framework by 2021, but they are aligning and serving INSPIRE data at a slow pace. Our paper can provide a boost to INSPIRE implementation as it shows the value of standardized data.
Robert Emberson, Dalia Kirschbaum, and Thomas Stanley
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3413–3424,Short summary
Landslides cause thousands of fatalities and cost billions of dollars of damage worldwide every year, but different inventories of landslide events can have widely diverging completeness. This can lead to spatial biases in our understanding of the impacts. Here we use a globally homogeneous model of landslide hazard and exposure to provide consistent estimates of where landslides are most likely to cause damage to people, roads and other critical infrastructure at 1 km resolution.
Thierry Oppikofer, Reginald L. Hermanns, Vegard U. Jakobsen, Martina Böhme, Pierrick Nicolet, and Ivanna Penna
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3179–3196,Short summary
Damming of rivers is an important secondary effect of landslides due to upstream flooding and possible outburst floods in case of dam failure. For preliminary regional hazard and risk assessment of dams formed by rock slope failures in Norway, we developed semi-empirical relationships to assess the height and stability of dams based on an inventory of 69 dams formed by rock slope failures in southwestern Norway and published landslide dam inventories from other parts of the world.
Wentao Yang, Lianyou Liu, and Peijun Shi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3215–3224,Short summary
We analysed deformation of a moving slope along the Jinsha River from November 2015 to November 2019. The slope is 80 km downstream from the famous Baige landslide, which caused two mega floods affecting downstream communities. This slope was relatively stable for the first 3 years (2015–2018) but moved significantly in the last year (2018–2019). The deformation is linked to seasonal precipitation. If this slope continues to slide downwards, it may have similar impacts to the Baige landslide.
Katy Burrows, Richard J. Walters, David Milledge, and Alexander L. Densmore
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3197–3214,Short summary
Satellite radar could provide information on landslide locations within days of an earthquake or rainfall event anywhere on Earth, but until now there has been a lack of systematic testing of possible radar methods, and most methods have been demonstrated using a single case study event and data from a single satellite sensor. Here we test five methods on four events, demonstrating their wide applicability and making recommendations on when different methods should be applied in the future.
Elisa Bozzolan, Elizabeth Holcombe, Francesca Pianosi, and Thorsten Wagener
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3161–3177,Short summary
We include informal housing in slope stability analysis, considering different slope properties and precipitation events (including climate change). The dominant failure processes are identified, and their relative role in slope failure is quantified. A new rainfall threshold is assessed for urbanised slopes. Instability
rulesare provided to recognise urbanised slopes most at risk. The methodology is suitable for regions with scarce field measurements and landslide inventories.
Wen Zhang, Jia Wang, Peihua Xu, Junqing Lou, Bo Shan, Fengyan Wang, Chen Cao, Xiaoxue Chen, and Jinsheng Que
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2921–2935,Short summary
Slope failure is extremely common in mountainous areas. Therefore, the stability and potential failure of slopes must be analysed accurately. For most fractured rock slopes, the aforementioned analyses are considerably challenging. This study aims to propose a comprehensive approach that combines three well-established methods to conduct the aformentioned analyses. Finally, the critical slip surface, factor of safety, and accumulation distance are selected for safety assurance in slope analysis.
Elena Leonarduzzi and Peter Molnar
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2905–2919,Short summary
Landslides are a natural hazard that affects alpine regions. Here we focus on rainfall-induced shallow landslides and one of the most widely used approaches for their predictions: rainfall thresholds. We design several comparisons utilizing a landslide database and rainfall records in Switzerland. We find that using daily rather than hourly rainfall might be a better option in some circumstances, and mean annual precipitation and antecedent wetness can improve predictions at the regional scale.
Baoqin Lian, Xingang Wang, Jianbing Peng, and Qiangbing Huang
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2843–2856,
Qin Chen, Lixia Chen, Lei Gui, Kunlong Yin, Dhruba Pikha Shrestha, Juan Du, and Xuelian Cao
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2547–2565,Short summary
Previous studies have focused on generalized vulnerability assessment from landslides or other types of slope failures, such as debris flow and rockfall. The proposed study establishes a three-step approach to investigate the physical vulnerability of buildings affected by slow-moving landslides. Herein, good consistency between the estimated building physical vulnerability and in-field damage evidence was found.
Marcelo A. Somos-Valenzuela, Joaquín E. Oyarzún-Ulloa, Ivo J. Fustos-Toribio, Natalia Garrido-Urzua, and Ningsheng Chen
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2319–2333,Short summary
This work presents a study of the biggest mudflow event in 20 years in Chilean Patagonia, which resulted from an avalanche in the Cordon Yelcho. We integrate in situ geotechnical tests and numerical modeling to model the Villa Santa Lucía mudflow event. Our results suggest that the initial soil water content is sufficient to transform the landslide and scoured soil into a mudflow. Therefore, knowing the soil characteristics is crucial to evaluating the impact of landslides in the study area.
Massimo Melillo, Stefano Luigi Gariano, Silvia Peruccacci, Roberto Sarro, Rosa Marìa Mateos, and Maria Teresa Brunetti
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2307–2317,Short summary
In the Canary Islands, a link between rainfall and rockfall occurrence is found for most of the year, except for the warm season. Empirical rainfall thresholds for rockfalls are first proposed for Gran Canaria and Tenerife, and the dependence of the thresholds on the mean annual rainfall is discussed. The use of thresholds in early-warning systems might contribute to the mitigation of the rockfall hazard in the archipelago and reduce the associated risk.
Sandro Rossato, Susan Ivy-Ochs, Silvana Martin, Alfio Viganò, Christof Vockenhuber, Manuel Rigo, Giovanni Monegato, Marco De Zorzi, Nicola Surian, Paolo Campedel, and Paolo Mozzi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2157–2174,Short summary
Rock avalanches are extremely dangerous, causing much damage worldwide. The
Masiere di Vedanais a rock avalanche deposit (9 km2, 170 Mm3) in NE Italy. We dated it back to late Roman to early Middle Ages. Identified drivers are the overall structural setting, exceptional rainfall events and seismic shakings. No exceptional event is required as a trigger. When dealing with heavily deformed bedrocks, especially in inhabited areas, the occurrence of a huge event like this must be considered.
Mylène Jacquemart and Kristy Tiampo
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
We used interferometric coherence – a data quality measure used to assess the reliability of radar interferometry data – to document the destablization of the Mud Creek landslide in California 5 months prior to its catastrophic failure. We calculate a time series of coherence on the slide relative to the surrounding hillslope and suggest that this easy to compute metric might be useful for identifying critically unstable hillslopes.
Gerardo Zegers, Pablo A. Mendoza, Alex Garces, and Santiago Montserrat
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1919–1930,Short summary
We perform a sensitivity analysis on the parameters of a numerical debris flow model and examine the effects of using post-event measurements on two creeks in Chile. Our results demonstrate the utility of sensitivity analysis in debris flow modeling and the benefits of post-event observations on parameter identifiability. This study provides guidance on the choice of uncertain parameters, contributing to more reliable simulations for debris flow risk assessments and land use planning.
Meng Lu, Jie Zhang, Lulu Zhang, and Limin Zhang
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1833–1846,Short summary
When analyzing the risk of landslides hitting moving vehicles, the spacing between vehicles and the vehicle types on the highway can be highly uncertain. Using a highway slope case study in Hong Kong, this paper presents a method to assess the risk of moving vehicles being hit by a rainfall-induced landslide; the method allows for the investigation of the possible number of different types of vehicles hit by the landslide and provides a new guideline for highway slope design.
Hu Zhao and Julia Kowalski
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1441–1461,Short summary
We study the impact of topographic uncertainty on landslide run-out modeling using conditional and unconditional stochastic simulation. First, we propose a generic workflow and then apply it to a historic flow-like landslide. We find that topographic uncertainty can greatly affect landslide run-out modeling, depending on how well the underlying flow path is captured by topographic data. The difference between unconditional and conditional stochastic simulation is discussed in detail.
Iván Vergara, Stella M. Moreiras, Diego Araneo, and René Garreaud
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1353–1367,Short summary
Geo-climatic hazards usually cause large losses of human life and economic losses. As they are very susceptible to weather, in many regions of the world these hazards are changing in frequency and magnitude due to current climate change. The purpose of this paper is to understand if, in the subtropical Andes of Argentina, these phenomena are increasing or decreasing and subsequently to understand the causes of these possible changes.
Feng Ji, Zili Dai, and Renjie Li
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1321–1334,Short summary
Southwest China is a severe disaster zone in terms of debris flow. To analyze the susceptibility to debris flows in this area, this study evaluates 70 typical debris flow gullies as statistical samples and proposes an empirical model based on quantification theory. A total of 10 debris flow gullies on the upstream of the Dadu River are analyzed to verify the reliability of the proposed model. The results show that the accuracy of the statistical model is 90 %.
Yimin Liu, Chenghu Wang, Guiyun Gao, Pu Wang, Zhengyang Hou, and Qisong Jiao
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1305–1319,Short summary
We considered a translational landslide exhibiting an unusual morphology, i.e., the Wobaoshi landslide. The deformation and failure mode of the plate-shaped bodies were analyzed and investigated based on numerical simulations and calculations. The monitoring data and geomechanical model proved that the accumulated water pressure in cracks causes the plate-shaped bodies to creep. Therefore, these research findings are of reference significance for the rainfall-induced translational landslides.
Zhu Liang, Changming Wang, Songling Han, Kaleem Ullah Jan Khan, and Yiao Liu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1287–1304,Short summary
The present study built a semi-quantitative classification and susceptibility assessment method for a study area, combining multiple mathematical methods and 3S technologies. The results have been verified with field investigation and other evaluation methods. Different methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, and some methods are complementary to a certain extent, so it is desirable to enhance the rationality of the application through the combination of multiple methods.
Germán Aguilar, Albert Cabré, Victor Fredes, and Bruno Villela
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1247–1265,Short summary
We have calculated erosion caused by an extreme storm in the Atacama Desert. Erosion distribution depends on the ability of catchments to store sediments in stream networks between storms and generate debris flows during the storm. The order of magnitude of erosion is the same as the erosion rates calculated over the long term, so these storms have a relevant influence on the evolution of these arid fluvial systems.
Johnnatan Palacio Cordoba, Martin Mergili, and Edier Aristizábal
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 815–829,Short summary
Landslides triggered by rainfall are very common phenomena in complex tropical environments such as the Colombian Andes. In this work, we perform probabilistic analyses with r.slope.stability for landslide susceptibility analysis. We test the model in the La Arenosa catchment, northern Colombian Andes. The results are compared to those yielded with the corresponding deterministic analyses and with other physically based models applied in the same catchment.
Zongxing Zou, Huiming Tang, Robert E. Criss, Xinli Hu, Chengren Xiong, Qiong Wu, and Yi Yuan
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
The evolutionary trend of deforming landslides and feasible treatments for huge reservoir landslides needs further study. A geomechanical model is presented to elucidate the deformation mechanism of reservoir landslides. The deformation process of Shuping landslide is well interpreted by the geomechanical model. A successful engineering treatment is applied in treating the Shuping landslide, providing references for treating other huge landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir area.
Dayu Yu, Liyu Tang, and Chongcheng Chen
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 727–741,Short summary
In recent years, dam-break accidents in tailing ponds have happened frequently, which has resulted in verified loss of life and ecological disaster. Simulation of a tailing dam accident in advance is useful for understanding the tailing flow characteristics and assessing the possible extension of the impact area. In this paper, a 3-D CFD approach was proposed for reasonably and quickly predicting the flow routing and impact area of mud flow from a dam failure across 3-D terrain.
Mingdong Zang, Shengwen Qi, Yu Zou, Zhuping Sheng, and Blanca S. Zamora
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 713–726,Short summary
Coseismic landslides often cause loss of life and property damage. Accurately mapping hazards is very important and challenging work. This paper considers the roughness and size effect of the potential sliding surface unloading joint and then presents an improved method of Newmark analysis for mapping hazards of coseismic landslides. The approach is verified using the Mw 6.1 Ludian earthquake in 2014 and compared with a conventional Newmark analysis using area under the curve analysis.
Sheng Fu, Lixia Chen, Tsehaie Woldai, Kunlong Yin, Lei Gui, Deying Li, Juan Du, Chao Zhou, Yong Xu, and Zhipeng Lian
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 581–601,Short summary
In this study, we conducted a more detailed semiquantitative landslide risk assessment at a community level and scale of 1 : 10 000. In this manner, the case study computed the loss of lives and properties for each slope. The proposed procedure proved to be more useful in complementing risk assessment on the small scale of 100 000 in western Hubei, China.
Martin Mergili, Michel Jaboyedoff, José Pullarello, and Shiva P. Pudasaini
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 505–520,Short summary
Computer simulations of complex landslide processes in mountain areas are important for informing risk management but are at the same time challenging in terms of parameterization and physical and numerical model implementation. Using the tool r.avaflow, we highlight the progress and the challenges with regard to such simulations on the example of the Piz Cengalo–Bondo landslide cascade in Switzerland, which started as an initial rockslide–rockfall and finally evolved into a debris flow.
Jalal Samia, Arnaud Temme, Arnold Bregt, Jakob Wallinga, Fausto Guzzetti, and Francesca Ardizzone
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 271–285,Short summary
For the Collazzone study area in Italy, we quantified how much landslides follow others using Ripley's K function, finding that susceptibility is increased within 60 m and 17 years after a previous landslide. We then calculated the increased susceptibility for every pixel and for the 17-time-slice landslide inventory. We used these as additional explanatory variables in susceptibility modelling. Model performance increased substantially with this landslide history component included.
Valeria Lupiano, Francesco Chidichimo, Guillermo Machado, Paolo Catelan, Lorena Molina, Claudia R. Calidonna, Salvatore Straface, Gino M. Crisci, and Salvatore Di Gregorio
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1–20,Short summary
A method for risk mitigation of secondary lahars, triggered by violent rainfall, is proposed as an alternative to methods for containment or deviation that could cause future disasters. It is based on controlled generation of small lahars as a result of collapse of frail dams by backfill, forming momentary ponds, as in natural cases. LLUNPIY verifies by simulation path, velocity, thickness, and erosion of lahars that could be produced; a complex case study for Vascún valley, Ecuador, is shown.
Sandra Melzner, Nurit Shtober-Zisu, Oded Katz, and Lea Wittenberg
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2879–2885,Short summary
In the eastern Alps, no work on post-wildfire rockfall activity and risk has been published so far. The present work describes a wildfire that occurred in August 2018 in a famous world heritage site in Austria. Indicators of fire severity and rockfall occurrence during and after the fire are described. Future research needs are defined in order to raise awareness about the implementation of a new research focus in the Alpine region.
Ronda Strauch, Erkan Istanbulluoglu, and Jon Riedel
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2477–2495,Short summary
Identifying landslide hazards is challenging but important for understanding risks to people and both built and natural resources. We use models to identify landslide hazards based on observed landslides and local site traits such as slope and on physical mechanisms such as soil moisture. Integrating both approaches improves hazard detection by accounting for processes not captured in the physically based model. Hazard maps are made for the North Cascades National Park Complex (Washington, USA).
Adel Albaba, Massimiliano Schwarz, Corinna Wendeler, Bernard Loup, and Luuk Dorren
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2339–2358,Short summary
We present a discrete-element-based model which is adapted and used to produce hillslope debris flows. The model parameters were calibrated using field experiments, and a very good agreement was found in terms of pressure and flow velocity. Calibration results suggested that a link might exist between the model parameters and the initial conditions of the granular material. However, to better understand this link, further investigations are required by conducting detailed lab-scale experiments.
Zac Sala, D. Jean Hutchinson, and Rob Harrap
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2385–2404,Short summary
The work carried out for this study is part of a collaborative research program studying the impact of ground hazards on transportation infrastructure in Canada. The focus of the paper is the testing and application of a new simulation technique which can model the movement of falling rock material. These initial tests show that our simulation technique is capable of reproducing material accumulations from rockfall events which occurred above a section of railway in British Columbia, Canada.
Lixia Chen, Zizheng Guo, Kunlong Yin, Dhruba Pikha Shrestha, and Shikuan Jin
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2207–2228,Short summary
The study aims to evaluate the influence of land use and land cover change on landslide susceptibility at a regional scale, based on the application of Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies. The specific objective is to answer the following question: which land cover/land use change poses the highest risk so that mitigation measures can be implemented in time?
Yaning Yi, Zhijie Zhang, Wanchang Zhang, Qi Xu, Cai Deng, and Qilun Li
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1973–1988,Short summary
On 8 August 2017, a Mw 6.5 earthquake struck the Jiuzhaigou region of Sichuan Province, which triggered numerous landslides. In this study, a landslide susceptibility map was generated by using an integrated weighted index model. Results indicated that the integrated model has superior fitting performance and predictive capability. We expect that the generated landslide susceptibility map can serve engineers and decision makers involved in hazard mitigation.
Ahangama Kankanamge Rasika Nishamanie Ranasinghe, Ranmalee Bandara, Udeni Gnanapriya Anuruddha Puswewala, and Thilantha Lakmal Dammalage
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1881–1893,Short summary
Koslanda in Sri Lanka is on people's minds due to frequently occurring landslides as the area is made vulnerable by both climatic and geomorphological settings. Integration of radar and optical remote sensing can be used to quite satisfactorily predict landslides with complementary information at a smaller scale. Inclusion of radar-derived factors in landslide susceptibility analysis of a bivariate and multivariate nature improves the prediction of high- and very-low-susceptibility areas.
Jianqiang Zhang, Cees J. van Westen, Hakan Tanyas, Olga Mavrouli, Yonggang Ge, Samjwal Bajrachary, Deo Raj Gurung, Megh Raj Dhital, and Narendral Raj Khanal
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1789–1805,Short summary
The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in the mappable characteristics of earthquake-triggered and rainfall triggered landslides in terms of their frequency–area relationships, spatial distributions and relation with causal factors, as well as to evaluate whether separate susceptibility maps generated for specific landslide size and triggering mechanism are better than a generic landslide susceptibility assessment including all landslide sizes and triggers.
Susanne A. Benz and Philipp Blum
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1433–1444,Short summary
This study aims to identify clusters of landslide events within a global database that are triggered by the same rainfall event. Results show that 14 % of all recorded landslide events are actually part of a landslide cluster consisting of at least 10 events. However, in a more regional analysis this number ranges from 30 % for the west coast of North America to 3 % in the Himalayan region. These findings provide an improved understanding for managing landslide mitigations on a larger scale.
Jing Wang, Guigen Nie, Shengjun Gao, and Changhu Xue
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1387–1398,Short summary
It is necessary to do some prevention study of landslide hazard like the early warning and deformation prediction. This research proposes a new strategy to predict displacement of the landslide. Results confirm the accuracy and effectiveness of this method in displacement prediction, which can provide assistance in early risk assessment and landslide forecasting.
Sita Karki, Mohamed Sultan, Saleh Alsefry, Hassan Alharbi, Mustafa Kemal Emil, Racha Elkadiri, and Emad Abu Alfadail
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1235–1249,Short summary
We constructed an intensity–duration thresholding technique required to develop an early-warning system for the Faifa Mountains in Saudi Arabia. The study uses radar imagery, satellite-derived rainfall data, archival imagery, and limited field data. The study presents a significant development in the application of radar for hydrogeological and geomorphological studies as it provides better resilience towards nonoptical conditions.
Louise Mary Vick, Valerie Zimmer, Christopher White, Chris Massey, and Tim Davies
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1105–1117,Short summary
Rockfall boulders can travel long distances downslope, and it is important to predict how far fatalities can be prevented. A comparison of earthquake data from New Zealand during summer and full-scale rockfall experiments in the same soil during winter shows that during dry seasons boulders travel further downslope because the soil is harder. When using predictive tools, engineers and geologists should take soil conditions (and seasonal variations thereof) into account.
Sajid Ali, Peter Biermanns, Rashid Haider, and Klaus Reicherter
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 999–1022,Short summary
The Karakoram Highway (KKH) is an important physical connection between Pakistan and China. Landslides have been a major threat to its stability since its construction. After the announcement of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), KKH has had more importance. Geoscientists from research institutions in both countries are assessing landslide hazard and risk along the highway. In a PhD project, this paper will be followed by a detailed analysis of mass movements along the highway.
Andrea Bevilacqua, Abani K. Patra, Marcus I. Bursik, E. Bruce Pitman, José Luis Macías, Ricardo Saucedo, and David Hyman
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 791–820,Short summary
We introduce a new prediction-oriented method for hazard assessment of volcaniclastic debris flows, based on multiple models. We apply our procedure to a case study of the 1955 Atenquique flow, using three widely used depth-averaged models. Depending on how it is looked at, the exercise provides useful information in either model selection or data inversion. Connecting inverse problems and model uncertainty represents a fundamental challenge in the future development of multi-model solvers.
David G. Milledge, Alexander L. Densmore, Dino Bellugi, Nick J. Rosser, Jack Watt, Gen Li, and Katie J. Oven
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 837–856,Short summary
Mitigating landslide risk requires information on landslide hazards on a suitable scale to inform decisions. We develop simple rules to identify landslide hazards and the probability of being hit by a landslide, then test their performance using six existing landslide inventories from recent earthquakes. We find that the best rules are "minimize your maximum look angle to the skyline" and "avoid steep (> 10˚) channels with many steep (> 40˚) areas that are upslope".
Elise Monsieurs, Olivier Dewitte, and Alain Demoulin
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 775–789,Short summary
We propose in this study a fundamentally new approach for the definition of minimum rainfall required for the initiation of landslides based on satellite-derived antecedent rainfall estimates directly coupled with data on surface susceptibility for landslides. We apply our approach in the western branch of the East African Rift and provide first regional rainfall thresholds for landsliding in tropical Africa.
Alexander, D.: Vulnerability to landslides, in: Landslide Hazard and Risk, edited by: Glade, T., Anderson, M., and Crozier, M. J., John Wiley and Sons, 175–198, 2005.
Ambraseys, N. and Bilham, R.: Corruption kills, Nature, 469, 153–155, 2011.
Bezada, M.: Natural hazards and human-induced disasters triggered by intense and episodic tropical rains in the Venezuelan mountains, Develop. Earth Surf. Proc., 13, 115–129, 2009.
Bommer, J. J. and Rodríguez, C. E.: Earthquake-induced landslides in Central America, Engin. Geol., 63, 189–220, 2002.
Carreño, R. and Kalafatovich, S.: The Alcamayo and Cedrobamba catastrophic debris flow (January, March and April 2004) in Machu Picchu area – Peru, Landslides, 3, 79–83, 2006.
CGMW: Geological Map of the World, 1:25 000 000 scale, 3rd Edn., version 3.0, Commission for the Geological Map of the World, UNESCO, DVD Edition, 2010
Escaleras, M., Anbarci, N., and Register, C. A.: Public sector corruption and major earthquakes: a potentially deadly interaction, Public Choice, 132, 209–230, 2007.
Evans, S. G.: Fatal landslides and landslide risk in Canada, in: Landslide Risk Assessment, edited by: Cruden, D. and Fell, R., Balkema, Rotterdam, 185–196, 1997.
Evans, S. G., Bishop, N. F., Fidel Smoll, L., Valderrama Murillo, P., Delaney, K. B., and Oliver-Smith, A.: A re-examination of the mechanism and human impact of catastrophic mass flows originating on Nevado Huascarán, Cordillera Blanca, Peru in 1962 and 1970, Engin. Geol., 108, 96–118, 2009.
Giardini, D., Grünthal, G., Shedlock, K. M., and Zhang, P.: The GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Map, Annali di Geofisica, 42, 1225–1228, 1999.
Giardini, D., Grünthal, G., Shedlock, K. M., and Zhang, P.: The GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Map, in: International Handbook of Earthquake and Engineering Seismology, edited by: Lee, W., Kanamori, H., Jennings, P., and Kisslinger, C., International Geophysics Series 81 B, Academic Press, Amsterdam, 1233–1239, 2003.
Guzzetti, F.: Landslide fatalities and the evaluation of landslide risk in Italy, Engin. Geol., 58, 89–107, 2000.
Guzzetti, F., Stark, C. P., and Salvati, P.: Evaluation of flooed and landslide risk to the population of Italy, Environ. Manage., 36, 15–36, 2005.
Kirschbaum, D. B., Adler, R., Hong, Y., Hill, S., and Lerner-Lam, A. A.: global landslide catalog for hazard implications: method, results, and limitations, Nat. Hazards, 52, 561–575, 2010.
Klimeš, J. and Rios Escobar, V.: A landslide susceptibility assessment in urban areas based on existing data: an example from the Iguaná Valley, Medellín City, Colombia, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 2067–2079, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-10-2067-2010, 2010.
Malamud, B. D., Turcotte, D. L., Guzzetti, F., and Reichenbach, P.: Landslide inventories and their statistical properties, Earth Surf. Proc. Landforms, 29, 687–711, 2004.
Moreiras, S. M.: Climatic effect of ENSO associated with landslide occurrence in the Central Andes, Mendoza Province, Argentina, Landslides, 2, 53–59, 2005.
Nadim, F., Kjekstad, O., Peduzzi, P., Herold, C., and Jaedicke, C.: Global landslide and avalanche hotspots, Landslides, 3, 159–173, 2006.
NEO: Population density gridded map, year 2000, NASA Earth Observatory, http://neo.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/view.php?datasetId=SEDAC_POP, last access: 21 March 2014.
O'Hare, G. and Rivas, S.: The landslide hazard and human vulnerability in La Paz City, Bolivia, Geograph. J., 171, 239–258, 2005.
Parker, R. N.: Controls on the distribution of landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Sichuan Province, China, unpublished MSc, University of Durham, 2010.
Petley, D. N.: On the impact of climate change and population growth on the occurrence of fatal landslides in South, East and SE Asia, Q. J. Eng. Geol. Hydroge., 43, 487–496, 2010.
Petley, D. N.: Global patterns of loss of life from landslides, Geology, 40, 927–930, 2012a
Petley, D. N.: Landslides and engineered slopes: protecting society through improved understanding, in: Landslides and engineered slopes: protecting society through improved understanding, edited by: Eberhardt, E., Froese, C., Turner, A. K., and Leroueil, S., Taylor and Francis Group, London, 3–13, 2012b.
Petley, D. N.: Global losses from landslides associated with dams and reservoirs, in: International Conference on Vajont 1963–2013: Thoughts and Analyses after 50 years since the Catastrophic Landslide, edited by: Genevois, R. and Prestininzi, A., Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, Book Series 6, 63–71, 2013.
Petley, D. N., Dunning, S. A., and Rosser, N. J.: The analysis of global landslide risk through the creation of a database of worldwide landslide fatalities, in: Landslide risk management, edited by: Hungr, O., Fell, R., Couture, R., and Eberhardt, E., Amsterdam, A. A. Balkema, 367–374, 2005.
Petley, D. N., Dunning, S. A., Rosser, N. J., and Kausar, A. B.: Incipient earthquakes in the Jhelum Valley, Pakistan following the 8 October 2005 earthquake, in: Disaster mitigation of debris flows, slope failures and landslides, edited by: Marui, H., Frontiers of Science Series 47, Universal Academy Press, Tokyo, Japan, 47–56, 2006.
Pierson, T. C., Janda, R. J., Thouret, J. C., and Borrero, C. A.: Perturbation and melting of snow and ice by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and consequent mobilization, flow and deposition of lahars, J. Volcanol. Geothe. Res., 41, 17–66, 1990.
Salvati, P., Bianchi, C., Rossi, M., and Guzzetti, F.: Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 465–483, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-10-465-2010, 2010.
Schneider, U., Becker, A., Finger, P., Meyer-Christoffer, A., Rudolf, B., and Ziese, M.: GPCC Full Data Reanalysis Version 6.0 at 0.5°: Monthly Land-Surface Precipitation from Rain-Gauges built on GTS-based and Historic Data, https://doi.org/10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FD_M_V6_050, 2011a.
Schneider, U., Becker, A., Finger, P., Meyer-Christoffer, A., Rudolf, B., and Ziese, M.: GPCC Full Data Reanalysis Version 6.0 at 1.0°: Monthly Land-Surface Precipitation from Rain-Gauges built on GTS-based and Historic Data, https://doi.org/10.5676/DWD_GPCC/FD_M_V6_100, 2011b.
Schuster, R. L., Salcedo, D. A., and Valenzuela, L.: Overview of catastrophic landslides of South America in the twentieth century, in: Catastrophic Landslides: Effects, occurrence and mechanisms, edited by: Evans, S. G. and DeGraff, J. V., Geological Society of America Reviews in Engineering Geology XV, 1–34, 2002.
Sepúlveda, S. A., Rebolledo, S., and Vargas, G.: Recent catastrophic debris flows in Chile: Geological hazard, climatic relationships and human response, Quaternary Internat., 158, 83–95, 2006.
Sepúlveda, S. A., Rebolledo, S., McPhee, J., Lara, M., Cartes, M., Rubio, E., Silva, D., Correia, N., and Vásquez, J. P.: Catastrophic, rainfall-induced debris flows in Andean villages of Tarapacá, Atacama Desert, northern Chile, Landslides, 11, 481–491, 2014.
Transparency International: Corruption Perceptions Index 2013, http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2013/results/, last access: 24 September 2014.
Trenberth, K. E.: The definition of El Niño, Bullet. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 72271–2777, 1997.
United Nations: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2013), World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision, DVD Edition, 2013.
UNDP: Human Development Report 2013. The raise of the South: Human progress in a diverse world. United Nations Development Programme, New York, 2013.
Van Den Eeckhaut, M. and Hervás, J: State of the art of national landslide databases in Europe and their potential for assessing landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk, Geomorphology, 139/140, 545–558, 2012.
We compiled a data set of 611 fatal landslides in the 2004-2013 period in Latin America and the Caribbean, with 11631 fatalities recorded. Our analysis suggests that on a continental scale the mapped factors that best explain the observed distribution are topography, annual precipitation and population density. Analysis of research on countries affected by fatal landslides shows a landslide research deficit in Latin America and the Caribbean.
We compiled a data set of 611 fatal landslides in the 2004-2013 period in Latin America and the...