Articles | Volume 20, issue 12
Research article
11 Dec 2020
Research article |  | 11 Dec 2020

Modeling dependence and coincidence of storm surges and high tide: methodology, discussion and recommendations based on a simplified case study in Le Havre (France)

Amine Ben Daoued, Yasser Hamdi, Nassima Mouhous-Voyneau, and Philippe Sergent

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Cited articles

Antony, C. and Unnikrishnan, A. S.: Observed characteristics of tide-surge interaction along the east coast of India and the head of Bay of Bengal, Estuar. Coast. Shelf. S., 131, 6–11,, 2013. 
Batstone, C., Lawless, M., Tawn, J., Horsburgh, K., Blackman, D., McMillan, A., Worth, D., Laeger, S., and Hunt, T.: A UK best-practice approach for extreme sea-level analysis along complex topographic coastlines, Ocean Eng., 71, 28–39,, 2013. 
Beauval, C.: Analyse des incertitudes dans une estimation probabiliste de l'aléa sismique, exemple de la France, Géophysique, Ph.D. thesis, Université Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble, 161, available at: (last access: 3 November 2019), 2003. 
Bensi, M. and Kanney, J.: Development of a framework for probabilistic storm surge hazard assessment for united states nuclear power plants, 23rd Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology SMiRT-23, 10–14 August 2015, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2015. 
Chebana, F. and Ouarda, T.: Multivariate quantiles in hydrological frequency analysis, Environmetrics, 22, 63–78,, 2011. 
Short summary
This paper deals with the evaluation of the risk associated with coastal flooding by combining the tide with extreme storm surges (SSs). In this work, methods for tide and SS combination were compared. Le Havre in France was used as a case study. Overall, the example has shown that the return level estimates using different combinations are quite different. It has also been suggested that the questions of coincidence and dependency are essential for a combined tide and SS hazard analysis.
Final-revised paper