01 Sep 2023
 | 01 Sep 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal NHESS.

An integrated tsunami inundation and risk analysis at the Makran Coast, Pakistan

Rashid Haider, Sajid Ali, Gösta Hoffmann, and Klaus Reicherter

Abstract. The coastal cities and areas of Gwadar and Pasni in Pakistan, being highly vulnerable to tsunamis, are investigated for inundation and risk analysis. For modelling, both dynamic and static approaches are used for better understanding and for their comparative analysis. The tsunami wave potential in the Arabian Sea is estimated by compiling and assessing the palaeo-morphodynamics of tsunamite record discovered so far along its coastlines. The dynamic model is calibrated and validated with the inundation limits of the 1945 tsunami in the Pasni area. Further, for risk estimation, three different wave scenarios (7 m, 10 m, and 15 m) are projected on Pasni and Gwadar. Results show that both cities are highly vulnerable to wave heights ≥7 m and wave lengths ≥ 15 km. The 15 m scenario would be almost a complete disaster for both cities and adjoining towns. Results of simulation and comparative analysis also show that due to coastal orientation and morphology, the reflection, integration, and amplification phenomena have a devastating effect on the region, and their intensity increases with the increasing size of the approaching waveform. It variably but significantly affects the inundation extents and depths. At the end, based on the simulated results, the utility of the installed early warning system is assessed.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Rashid Haider, Sajid Ali, Gösta Hoffmann, and Klaus Reicherter

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2023-148', Anonymous Referee #1, 19 Dec 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Rashid Haider, 09 Jan 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2023-148', Anonymous Referee #2, 05 Mar 2024
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Rashid Haider, 11 Mar 2024
Rashid Haider, Sajid Ali, Gösta Hoffmann, and Klaus Reicherter
Rashid Haider, Sajid Ali, Gösta Hoffmann, and Klaus Reicherter


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Short summary
The Coastlines bordering the Arabian Sea has yielded various tsunamites reflecting its high hazard potential and recurrences. My PhD project aims at the estimation and zonation of the hazards and risks associated. This publication is a continuation of the previous publication (Haider et al., 2023), which focused on hazard estimation through a multi-proxy approach. This part of the study estimates the risk potential through integrated tsunami inundation analysis.