Articles | Volume 23, issue 4
Research article
24 Apr 2023
Research article |  | 24 Apr 2023

Effect of extreme El Niño events on the precipitation of Ecuador

Dirk R. Thielen, Paolo Ramoni-Perazzi, Ezequiel Zamora-Ledezma, Mary L. Puche, Marco Marquez, José I. Quintero, Wilmer Rojas, Alberto Quintero, Guillermo Bianchi, Irma A. Soto-Werschitz, and Marco Aurelio Arizapana-Almonacid

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Cited articles

Ashok, K., Behera, S. K., Rao, S. A., Weng, H., and Yamagata, T.: El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C11007,, 2007. 
Baez-Villanueva, O. M., Zambrano-Bigiarini, M., Ribbe, L., Nauditt, A., Giraldo-Osorio, J. D., and Thinh, N. X.: Temporal and spatial evaluation of satellite rainfall estimates over different regions in Latin-America, Atmos. Res., 213, 34–50,, 2018. 
Beck, H. E., Vergopolan, N., Pan, M., Levizzani, V., van Dijk, A. I. J. M., Weedon, G. P., Brocca, L., Pappenberger, F., Huffman, G. J., and Wood, E. F.: Global-scale evaluation of 22 precipitation datasets using gauge observations and hydrological modeling, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 6201–6217,, 2017. 
Bendix, A. and Bendix, J.: Heavy rainfall episodes in Ecuador during El Niño events and associated regional atmospheric circulation and SST patterns, Adv. Geosci., 6, 43–49,, 2006. 
Bernabé, M. A., Carreón, D., Cerca, M., Culqui, J., González, M. E., González, M., Gutiérrez, C., Gutiérrez, R., Herrera, G., Padilla, O., Pauker, F., Rodriguez, F., Rodríguez, G., Salazar, R., Toulkeridis, T., Vasco, C., and Zacarías, S.: Amenazas de origen natural y gestión de riesgo en el Ecuador 1 – Algunos elementos fundamentales en el manejo de reducción de riesgo de desastres (RRD), Editorial ESPE, Quito, Ecuador, ISBN 978-9942-21-705-9, 2014. 
Short summary
Extreme El Niño events are unique in their strong impacts and differ from other El Niños. In Ecuador, extreme eastern Pacific El Niño and coastal El Niño generate dangerous precipitation anomalies, particularly in areas with a high natural seasonality index, steep terrain, and a close proximity to the coast. These findings can help develop effective strategies to reduce vulnerability to potential increases in extreme El Niño frequency and intensity.
Final-revised paper