Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2023-215
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2023-215
02 Jan 2024
 | 02 Jan 2024
Status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal NHESS and is expected to appear here in due course.

Intense rains in Israel associated with the 'Train effect'

Baruch Ziv, Uri Dayan, Lidiya Shendrik, and Elyakom Vadislavsky

Abstract. 'Train effect' is defined as a cloud system in which several convective cells pass over the same place in a short time. Trains produce large amount of rainfall, frequently leading to flash floods, reported mainly over North America during spring and summer. Thirty train events were identified, using radar images, calibrated by rain-gauges, for four winters, all associated with Cyprus Lows (CL). The dynamic factors responsible for their formation in Israel were examined, utilizing the ECMWF Integrated Forecast System of 0.1° resolution.

Seventeen out of the 30 events share common features. Each one was found at the cold sector in the southern periphery of a CL at its occluded stage, and located in the left flank of a maximum wind belt, where cyclonic shear vorticity exists. The trains cross the Israeli coast near 32.2° N, with a mean length of 45 km, last 1–3 hours, and yield ~35 mm rainfall. The maximum wind belts right of the trains were found to delineate the limit of the precipitative region of the CLs. Unlike classical trains, activated by thermal or frontal forcing, the EM trains that develop in cold air-mass, can be entitled 'cold trains', rather than the classical 'warm trains'.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Baruch Ziv, Uri Dayan, Lidiya Shendrik, and Elyakom Vadislavsky

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2023-215', Anonymous Referee #1, 28 Jan 2024
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Baruch Ziv, 28 May 2024
  • CC1: 'Comment on nhess-2023-215', Hadas Saaroni, 25 Apr 2024
    • AC3: 'Reply on CC1', Baruch Ziv, 28 May 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2023-215', Anonymous Referee #2, 29 Apr 2024
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Baruch Ziv, 28 May 2024

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2023-215', Anonymous Referee #1, 28 Jan 2024
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Baruch Ziv, 28 May 2024
  • CC1: 'Comment on nhess-2023-215', Hadas Saaroni, 25 Apr 2024
    • AC3: 'Reply on CC1', Baruch Ziv, 28 May 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2023-215', Anonymous Referee #2, 29 Apr 2024
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Baruch Ziv, 28 May 2024
Baruch Ziv, Uri Dayan, Lidiya Shendrik, and Elyakom Vadislavsky
Baruch Ziv, Uri Dayan, Lidiya Shendrik, and Elyakom Vadislavsky

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Short summary
'Train effect' is related to convective cells that pass over the same place. Trains produce heavy rainfall, sometimes floods, and reported in N. America during spring and summer. In Israel, 17 trains were identified by radar images, associated with Cyprus Lows, sharing the following features: Found at the cold sector south of the low center, at the left flank of a maximum wind belt; they cross the Israeli coast, with a mean length of 45 km, last 1–3 hours and yield 35 mm rainfall, up to 60 mm.  
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