Articles | Volume 22, issue 10
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Integrated seismic risk assessment in Nepal
Department of Civil Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Lalitpur, Nepal
Department of Civil Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Lalitpur, Nepal
Related subject area
Risk Assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies, Socioeconomic and Management AspectsQuantifying the potential benefits of risk-mitigation strategies on future flood losses in Kathmandu Valley, NepalReview article: Potential of nature-based solutions to mitigate hydro-meteorological risks in sub-Saharan AfricaInvited perspectives: An insurer's perspective on the knowns and unknowns in natural hazard risk modellingClassifying marine faults for hazard assessment offshore Israel: a new approach based on fault size and vertical displacementAssessing agriculture's vulnerability to drought in European pre-Alpine regionsTsunami risk perception in central and southern ItalyBrief communication: Critical infrastructure impacts of the 2021 mid-July western European flood eventMulti-scenario urban flood risk assessment by integrating future land use change models and hydrodynamic modelsBuilding-scale flood loss estimation through vulnerability pattern characterization: application to an urban flood in Milan, ItalyProcess-based flood damage modelling relying on expert knowledge: a methodological contribution applied to the agricultural sectorDynamic risk assessment of compound hazards based on VFS–IEM–IDM: a case study of typhoon–rainstorm hazards in Shenzhen, ChinaMachine learning models to predict myocardial infarctions from past climatic and environmental conditionsReliability of flood marks and practical relevance for flood hazard assessment in southwestern GermanyInvited perspectives: Managed realignment as a solution to mitigate coastal flood risks – optimizing success through knowledge co-productionInvited perspectives: Views of 350 natural hazard community members on key challenges in natural hazards research and the Sustainable Development GoalsEstimating return intervals for extreme climate conditions related to winter disasters and livestock mortality in MongoliaSurveying the surveyors to address risk perception and adaptive-behaviour cross-study comparabilityDifferences in volcanic risk perception among Goma’s population before the Nyiragongo eruption of May 2021, Virunga volcanic province (DR Congo)Comparison of sustainable flood risk management by four countries – the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States, and Japan – and the implications for Asian coastal megacitiesProjected impact of heat on mortality and labour productivity under climate change in SwitzerlandFull-scale experiments to examine the role of deadwood in rockfall dynamics in forestsPredicting drought and subsidence risks in FranceReview article: Design and Evaluation of Weather Index Insurance for Multi-Hazard Resilience and Food InsecurityScenario-based multi-risk assessment from existing single-hazard vulnerability models. An application to consecutive earthquakes and tsunamis in Lima, PeruThe determinants affecting the intention of urban residents to prepare for flood risk in ChinaStrategic framework for natural disaster risk mitigation using deep learning and cost-benefit analysisRisk communication during seismo-volcanic crises: the example of Mayotte, FranceInvited perspectives: Challenges and step changes for natural hazard – perspectives from the German Committee for Disaster Reduction (DKKV)Invited perspectives: When research meets practice: challenges, opportunities, and suggestions from the implementation of the Floods Directive in the largest Italian river basinRapid landslide risk zoning toward multi-slope units of the Neikuihui tribe for preliminary disaster managementINSYDE-BE: adaptation of the INSYDE model to the Walloon region (Belgium)Identifying the drivers of private flood precautionary measures in Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamPerformance of the flood warning system in Germany in July 2021 – insights from affected residentsEffective uncertainty visualization for aftershock forecast mapsInvited perspectives: A research agenda towards disaster risk management pathways in multi-(hazard-)risk assessmentDesign and Testing of a Multi-Hazard Risk Rapid Assessment Questionnaire for Hill Communities in the Indian Himalayan RegionEmpirical tsunami fragility modelling for hierarchical damage levels: An application to damage data of the 2009 South Pacific tsunamiEducation, financial aid, and awareness can reduce smallholder farmers' vulnerability to drought under climate changeRegional county-level housing inventory predictions and the effects on hurricane riskBrief communication: Key papers of 20 years in Natural Hazards and Earth System SciencesInvited Perspectives: “Small country, big challenges – Switzerland's hazard prevention research”Invited perspectives: Challenges and future directions in improving bridge flood resilienceBangladesh's vulnerability to cyclonic coastal floodingA geography of drought indices: mismatch between indicators of drought and its impacts on water and food securitiesCost–benefit analysis of coastal flood defence measures in the North Adriatic SeaAbout the return period of a catastropheBrief communication: Radar images for monitoring informal urban settlements in vulnerable zones in Lima, PeruA simulation–optimization framework for post-disaster allocation of mental health resourcesLessons learned about the importance of raising risk awareness in the Mediterranean region (north Morocco and west Sardinia, Italy)Stochastic system dynamics modelling for climate change water scarcity assessment of a reservoir in the Italian Alps
Carlos Mesta, Gemma Cremen, and Carmine Galasso
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 711–731,Short summary
Flood risk is expected to increase in many regions worldwide due to rapid urbanization and climate change. The benefits of risk-mitigation measures remain inadequately quantified for potential future events in some multi-hazard-prone areas such as Kathmandu Valley (KV), Nepal, which this paper addresses. The analysis involves modeling two flood occurrence scenarios and using four residential exposure inventories representing current urban system or near-future development trajectories for KV.
Kirk B. Enu, Aude Zingraff-Hamed, Mohammad A. Rahman, Lindsay C. Stringer, and Stephan Pauleit
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 481–505,Short summary
In sub-Saharan Africa, there is reported uptake of at least one nature-based solution (NBS) in 71 % of urban areas in the region for mitigating hydro-meteorological risks. These NBSs are implemented where risks exist but not where they are most severe. With these NBSs providing multiple ecosystem services and four out of every five NBSs creating livelihood opportunities, NBSs can help address major development challenges in the region, such as water and food insecurity and unemployment.
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 251–259,Short summary
This paper proves the need to conduct an in-depth review of the existing loss modelling framework and makes it clear that only a transdisciplinary effort will be up to the challenge of building global loss models. These two factors are essential to capture the interactions and increasing complexity of the three risk drivers (exposure, hazard, and vulnerability), thus enabling insurers to anticipate and be equipped to face the far-ranging impacts of climate change and other natural events.
May Laor and Zohar Gvirtzman
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 139–158,Short summary
This study aims to provide a practical and relatively fast solution for early-stage planning of marine infrastructure that must cross a faulted zone. Instead of investing huge efforts in finding whether each specific fault meets a pre-defined criterion of activeness, we map the subsurface and determine the levels of fault hazard based on the amount of displacement and the fault's plane size. This allows for choosing the least problematic infrastructure routes at an early planning stage.
Ruth Stephan, Stefano Terzi, Mathilde Erfurt, Silvia Cocuccioni, Kerstin Stahl, and Marc Zebisch
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 45–64,Short summary
This study maps agriculture's vulnerability to drought in the European pre-Alpine regions of Thurgau (CH) and Podravska (SI). We combine region-specific knowledge with quantitative data mapping; experts of the study regions, far apart, identified a few common but more region-specific factors that we integrated in two vulnerability scenarios. We highlight the benefits of the participatory approach in improving the quantitative results and closing the gap between science and practitioners.
Lorenzo Cugliari, Massimo Crescimbene, Federica La Longa, Andrea Cerase, Alessandro Amato, and Loredana Cerbara
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4119–4138,Short summary
The Tsunami Alert Centre of the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (CAT-INGV) has been promoting the study of tsunami risk perception in Italy since 2018. A total of 7342 questionnaires were collected in three survey phases (2018, 2020, 2021). In this work we present the main results of the three survey phases, with a comparison among the eight surveyed regions and between the coastal regions and some coastal metropolitan cities involved in the survey.
Elco E. Koks, Kees C. H. van Ginkel, Margreet J. E. van Marle, and Anne Lemnitzer
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3831–3838,Short summary
This study provides an overview of the impacts to critical infrastructure and how recovery has progressed after the July 2021 flood event in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. The results show that Germany and Belgium were particularly affected, with many infrastructure assets severely damaged or completely destroyed. This study helps to better understand how infrastructure can be affected by flooding and can be used for validation purposes for future studies.
Qinke Sun, Jiayi Fang, Xuewei Dang, Kepeng Xu, Yongqiang Fang, Xia Li, and Min Liu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3815–3829,Short summary
Flooding by extreme weather events and human activities can lead to catastrophic impacts in coastal areas. The research illustrates the importance of assessing the performance of different future urban development scenarios in response to climate change, and the simulation study of urban risks will prove to decision makers that incorporating disaster prevention measures into urban development plans will help reduce disaster losses and improve the ability of urban systems to respond to floods.
Andrea Taramelli, Margherita Righini, Emiliana Valentini, Lorenzo Alfieri, Ignacio Gatti, and Simone Gabellani
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3543–3569,Short summary
This work aims to support decision-making processes to prioritize effective interventions for flood risk reduction and mitigation for the implementation of flood risk management concepts in urban areas. Our findings provide new insights into vulnerability spatialization of urban flood events for the residential sector, demonstrating that the nature of flood pathways varies spatially and is influenced by landscape characteristics, as well as building features.
Pauline Brémond, Anne-Laurence Agenais, Frédéric Grelot, and Claire Richert
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3385–3412,Short summary
It is impossible to protect all issues against flood risk. To prioritise protection, economic analyses are conducted. The French Ministry of the Environment wanted to make available damage functions that we have developed for several sectors. For this, we propose a methodological framework and apply it to the model we have developed to assess damage to agriculture. This improves the description, validation, transferability and updatability of models based on expert knowledge.
Wenwu Gong, Jie Jiang, and Lili Yang
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3271–3283,Short summary
We propose a model named variable fuzzy set and information diffusion (VFS–IEM–IDM) to assess the dynamic risk of compound hazards, which takes into account the interrelations between the hazard drivers, deals with the problem of data sparsity, and considers the temporal dynamics of the occurrences of the compound hazards. To examine the efficacy of the proposed VFS–IEM–IDM model, a case study of typhoon–rainstorm risks in Shenzhen, China, is presented.
Lennart Marien, Mahyar Valizadeh, Wolfgang zu Castell, Christine Nam, Diana Rechid, Alexandra Schneider, Christine Meisinger, Jakob Linseisen, Kathrin Wolf, and Laurens M. Bouwer
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3015–3039,Short summary
Myocardial infarctions (MIs; heart attacks) are influenced by temperature extremes, air pollution, lack of green spaces and ageing population. Here, we apply machine learning (ML) models in order to estimate the influence of various environmental and demographic risk factors. The resulting ML models can accurately reproduce observed annual variability in MI and inter-annual trends. The models allow quantification of the importance of individual factors and can be used to project future risk.
Annette Sophie Bösmeier, Iso Himmelsbach, and Stefan Seeger
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2963–2979,Short summary
Encouraging a systematic use of flood marks for more comprehensive flood risk management, we collected a large number of marks along the Kinzig, southwestern Germany, and tested them for plausibility and temporal continuance. Despite uncertainty, the marks appeared to be an overall consistent and practical source that may also increase flood risk awareness. A wide agreement between the current flood hazard maps and the collected flood marks moreover indicated a robust local hazard assessment.
Mark Schuerch, Hannah L. Mossman, Harriet E. Moore, Elizabeth Christie, and Joshua Kiesel
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2879–2890,Short summary
Coastal nature-based solutions to adapt to sea-level rise, such as managed realignments (MRs), are becoming increasingly popular amongst scientists and coastal managers. However, local communities often oppose these projects, partly because scientific evidence for their efficiency is limited. Here, we propose a framework to work with stakeholders and communities to define success variables of MR projects and co-produce novel knowledge on the projects’ efficiency to mitigate coastal flood risks.
Robert Šakić Trogrlić, Amy Donovan, and Bruce D. Malamud
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2771–2790,Short summary
Here we present survey responses of 350 natural hazard community members to key challenges in natural hazards research and step changes to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Challenges identified range from technical (e.g. model development, early warning) to governance (e.g. co-production with community members). Step changes needed are equally broad; however, the majority of answers showed a need for wider stakeholder engagement, increased risk management and interdisciplinary work.
Masahiko Haraguchi, Nicole Davi, Mukund Palat Rao, Caroline Leland, Masataka Watanabe, and Upmanu Lall
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2751–2770,Short summary
Mass livestock mortality during severe winters (dzud in Mongolian) is a compound event. Summer droughts are a precondition for dzud. We estimate the return levels of relevant variables: summer drought conditions and minimum winter temperature. The result shows that the return levels of drought conditions vary over time. Winter severity, however, is constant. We link climatic factors to socioeconomic impacts and draw attention to the need for index insurance.
Samuel Rufat, Mariana Madruga de Brito, Alexander Fekete, Emeline Comby, Peter J. Robinson, Iuliana Armaş, W. J. Wouter Botzen, and Christian Kuhlicke
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2655–2672,Short summary
It remains unclear why people fail to act adaptively to reduce future losses, even when there is ever-richer information available. To improve the ability of researchers to build cumulative knowledge, we conducted an international survey – the Risk Perception and Behaviour Survey of Surveyors (Risk-SoS). We find that most studies are exploratory and often overlook theoretical efforts that would enable the accumulation of evidence. We offer several recommendations for future studies.
Blaise Mafuko Nyandwi, Matthieu Kervyn, Muhashy Habiyaremye, François Kervyn, and Caroline Michellier
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
Risk perception involves the processes of collecting, selecting, and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of hazards. It may contribute to improving risk communication and motivating the protective behaviour of the population living near volcanoes. Our work describes the spatial variation and factors influencing volcanic risk perception of 2204 adults of Goma exposed to Nyiragongo. It contributes to providing a case study for risk perception understanding in the global south.
Faith Ka Shun Chan, Liang Emlyn Yang, Gordon Mitchell, Nigel Wright, Mingfu Guan, Xiaohui Lu, Zilin Wang, Burrell Montz, and Olalekan Adekola
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2567–2588,Short summary
Sustainable flood risk management (SFRM) has become popular since the 1980s. This study examines the past and present flood management experiences in four developed countries (UK, the Netherlands, USA, and Japan) that have frequently suffered floods. We analysed ways towards SFRM among Asian coastal cities, which are still reliant on a hard-engineering approach that is insufficient to reduce future flood risk. We recommend stakeholders adopt mixed options to undertake SFRM practices.
Zélie Stalhandske, Valentina Nesa, Marius Zumwald, Martina S. Ragettli, Alina Galimshina, Niels Holthausen, Martin Röösli, and David N. Bresch
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2531–2541,Short summary
We model the impacts of heat on both mortality and labour productivity in Switzerland in a changing climate. We estimate 658 heat-related death currently per year in Switzerland and CHF 665 million in losses in labour productivity. Should we remain on a high-emissions pathway, these values may double or even triple by the end of the century. Under a lower-emissions scenario impacts are expected to slightly increase and peak by around mid-century.
Adrian Ringenbach, Elia Stihl, Yves Bühler, Peter Bebi, Perry Bartelt, Andreas Rigling, Marc Christen, Guang Lu, Andreas Stoffel, Martin Kistler, Sandro Degonda, Kevin Simmler, Daniel Mader, and Andrin Caviezel
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2433–2443,Short summary
Forests have a recognized braking effect on rockfalls. The impact of lying deadwood, however, is mainly neglected. We conducted 1 : 1-scale rockfall experiments in three different states of a spruce forest to fill this knowledge gap: the original forest, the forest including lying deadwood and the cleared area. The deposition points clearly show that deadwood has a protective effect. We reproduced those experimental results numerically, considering three-dimensional cones to be deadwood.
Arthur Charpentier, Molly James, and Hani Ali
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2401–2418,Short summary
Predicting consequences of drought episodes is complex, all the more when focusing on subsidence. We use 20 years of insurer data to derive a model to predict both the intensity and the severity of such events, using geophysical and climatic information located in space and time.
Marcos Roberto Benso, Gabriela Chiquito Gesualdo, Greicelene Jesus Silva, Luis Miguel Castillo Rápalo, Fabrício Alonso Richmond Navarro, Roberto Fray Silva, and Eduardo Mario Mendiondo
Lately we have been exposed to news demonstrating the vulnerability of our society to a variety of natural disasters and they usually are not isolated. To improve the financial stability, we need to provide insurance contracts that allow coverage for multiple sources of threats, such as droughts, extreme temperatures and floods. We conducted a review of the literature for answering very simple questions regarding weather index insurance design and how to cope with multiple hazard risks.
Juan Camilo Gómez Zapata, Massimiliano Pittore, Nils Brinckmann, Juan Lizarazo-Marriaga, Sergio Medina, Nicola Tarque, and Fabrice Cotton
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for NHESSShort summary
To investigate cumulative damage on extended building portfolios, we propose an alternative and modular method to probabilistically integrate sets of single-hazard vulnerability models that are being constantly developed by experts from various research fields to be used within a multi-risk context. We demonstrate its application by assessing the economic losses expected for the residential building stock of Lima, Peru, a megacity commonly exposed to consecutive earthquake and tsunami scenarios.
Tiantian Wang, Yunmeng Lu, Tiezhong Liu, Yujiang Zhang, Xiaohan Yan, and Yi Liu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2185–2199,Short summary
To identify the main determinants influencing urban residents' intention to prepare for flood risk in China, we developed an integrated theoretical framework based on protection motivation theory (PMT) and validated it with structural equation modeling. The results showed that both threat perception and coping appraisal were effective in increasing residents' intention to prepare. In addition, individual heterogeneity and social context also had an impact on preparedness intentions.
Ji-Myong Kim, Sang-Guk Yum, Hyunsoung Park, and Junseo Bae
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2131–2144,Short summary
Insurance data has been utilized with deep learning techniques to predict natural disaster damage losses in South Korea.
Maud Devès, Robin Lacassin, Hugues Pécout, and Geoffrey Robert
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2001–2029,Short summary
This paper focuses on the issue of population information about natural hazards and disaster risk. It builds on the analysis of the unique seismo-volcanic crisis on the island of Mayotte, France, that started in May 2018 and lasted several years. We document the gradual response of the actors in charge of scientific monitoring and risk management. We then make recommendations for improving risk communication strategies in Mayotte and also in contexts where comparable geo-crises may happen.
Benni Thiebes, Ronja Winkhardt-Enz, Reimund Schwarze, and Stefan Pickl
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1969–1972,Short summary
The worldwide challenge of the present as well as the future is to navigate the global community to a sustainable and secure future. Humanity is increasingly facing multiple risks under more challenging conditions. The continuation of climate change and the ever more frequent occurrence of extreme, multi-hazard, and cascading events are interacting with increasingly complex and interconnected societies.
Tommaso Simonelli, Laura Zoppi, Daniela Molinari, and Francesco Ballio
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1819–1823,Short summary
The paper discusses challenges (and solutions) emerged during a collaboration among practitioners, stakeholders, and scientists in the definition of flood damage maps in the Po River District. Social aspects were proven to be fundamental components of the risk assessment; variety of competences in the working group was key in finding solutions and revealing weaknesses of intermediate proposals. This paper finally highlights the need of duplicating such an experience at a broader European level.
Chih-Chung Chung and Zih-Yi Li
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1777–1794,Short summary
The Neikuihui tribe in northern Taiwan faces landslides during rainfall events. Since the government needs to respond with disaster management for the most at-risk tribes, this study develops rapid risk zoning, which involves the susceptibility, activity, exposure, and vulnerability of each slope unit of the area. Results reveal that one of the slope units of the Neikuihui tribal area has a higher risk and did suffer a landslide during the typhoon in 2016.
Anna Rita Scorzini, Benjamin Dewals, Daniela Rodriguez Castro, Pierre Archambeau, and Daniela Molinari
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1743–1761,Short summary
This study presents a replicable procedure for the adaptation of synthetic, multi-variable flood damage models among countries that may have different hazard and vulnerability features. The procedure is exemplified here for the case of adaptation to the Belgian context of a flood damage model, INSYDE, for the residential sector, originally developed for Italy. The study describes necessary changes in model assumptions and input parameters to properly represent the new context of implementation.
Thulasi Vishwanath Harish, Nivedita Sairam, Liang Emlyn Yang, Matthias Garschagen, and Heidi Kreibich
Coastal Asian cities are becoming more vulnerable to flooding. In this study we analyse the data collected from flood prone houses in Ho Chi Minh City to identify what motivates the households to adopt flood precautionary measures. The results revealed that educating the households about the available flood precautionary measures and communicating the flood protection measures taken by the government encourages the households to adopt measures without having to experience multiple flood events.
Annegret H. Thieken, Philip Bubeck, Anna Heidenreich, Jennifer von Keyserlingk, Lisa Dillenardt, and Antje Otto
In July 2021 intense rainfall caused devastating floods in Western Europe with 184 fatalities in the German federal states of North Rhine-Westphalia (NW) and Rhineland-Palatinate (RP) questioning their warning system. An online survey revealed that 35 % of the respondents from NW and 29 % from RP did not receive any warning. Many of those who were warned did not expect severe flooding, nor did they know how to react. The study provides entry points for improving the warning system in Germany.
Max Schneider, Michelle McDowell, Peter Guttorp, E. Ashley Steel, and Nadine Fleischhut
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1499–1518,Short summary
Aftershock forecasts are desired for risk response, but public communications often omit their uncertainty. We evaluate three uncertainty visualization designs for aftershock forecast maps. In an online experiment, participants complete map-reading and judgment tasks relevant across natural hazards. While all designs reveal which areas are likely to have many or no aftershocks, one design can also convey that areas with high uncertainty can have more aftershocks than forecasted.
Philip J. Ward, James Daniell, Melanie Duncan, Anna Dunne, Cédric Hananel, Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler, Annegien Tijssen, Silvia Torresan, Roxana Ciurean, Joel C. Gill, Jana Sillmann, Anaïs Couasnon, Elco Koks, Noemi Padrón-Fumero, Sharon Tatman, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Adewole Adesiyun, Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts, Alexander Alabaster, Bernard Bulder, Carlos Campillo Torres, Andrea Critto, Raúl Hernández-Martín, Marta Machado, Jaroslav Mysiak, Rene Orth, Irene Palomino Antolín, Eva-Cristina Petrescu, Markus Reichstein, Timothy Tiggeloven, Anne F. Van Loon, Hung Vuong Pham, and Marleen C. de Ruiter
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1487–1497,Short summary
The majority of natural-hazard risk research focuses on single hazards (a flood, a drought, a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, etc.). In the international research and policy community it is recognised that risk management could benefit from a more systemic approach. In this perspective paper, we argue for an approach that addresses multi-hazard, multi-risk management through the lens of sustainability challenges that cut across sectors, regions, and hazards.
Shivani Chouhan and Mahua Mukherjee
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for NHESSShort summary
The Himalayas are prone to multi-hazard. To minimize loss, proper planning and execution in the right direction is necessary. Data collection is base for any risk assessment process. This enhanced survey form is easy to understand, pictorial and identify high-risk components of any building (structural & non-structural) and campus from multi-hazards. Its results can help to utilize the budget in a prioritized way. This study is gone through SWOT of the existing risk assessment form.
Fatemeh Jalayer, Hossein Ebrahimian, Konstantinos Trevlopoulos, and Brendon Bradley
Assessing tsunami fragility and the related uncertainties is crucial in the evaluation of incurred losses. Empirical fragility modelling is based on observed tsunami intensity and damage data. Fragility curves for hierarchical damage levels are distinguished by their laminar shape; that is, the curves should not intersect. However, this condition is not satisfied automatically. We present a workflow for hierarchical fragility modelling, uncertainty propagation, and fragility model selection.
Marthe L. K. Wens, Anne F. van Loon, Ted I. E. Veldkamp, and Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1201–1232,Short summary
In this paper, we present an application of the empirically calibrated drought risk adaptation model ADOPT for the case of smallholder farmers in the Kenyan drylands. ADOPT is used to evaluate the effect of various top-down drought risk reduction interventions (extension services, early warning systems, ex ante cash transfers, and low credit rates) on individual and community drought risk (adaptation levels, food insecurity, poverty, emergency aid) under different climate change scenarios.
Caroline J. Williams, Rachel A. Davidson, Linda K. Nozick, Joseph E. Trainor, Meghan Millea, and Jamie L. Kruse
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1055–1072,Short summary
A neural network model based on publicly available data was developed to forecast the number of housing units for each of 1000 counties in the southeastern United States in each of the next 20 years. The estimated number of housing units is almost always (97 % of the time) less than 1 percentage point different than the observed number, which are predictive errors acceptable for most practical purposes. The housing unit projections can help quantify changes in future expected hurricane impacts.
Animesh K. Gain, Yves Bühler, Pascal Haegeli, Daniela Molinari, Mario Parise, David J. Peres, Joaquim G. Pinto, Kai Schröter, Ricardo M. Trigo, María Carmen Llasat, and Heidi Kreibich
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 985–993,Short summary
To mark the 20th anniversary of Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS), an interdisciplinary and international journal dedicated to the public discussion and open-access publication of high-quality studies and original research on natural hazards and their consequences, we highlight 11 key publications covering major subject areas of NHESS that stood out within the past 20 years.
Dorothea Wabbels and Gian Reto Bezzola
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 927–930,Short summary
Due to its geography and climate, densely populated Switzerland is often affected by water-related hazards such as surface runoff, floods, debris flows, landslides, rockfalls and avalanches. Almost every part of Switzerland is exposed to natural hazards, and anyone can be affected.
Enrico Tubaldi, Christopher J. White, Edoardo Patelli, Stergios Aristoteles Mitoulis, Gustavo de Almeida, Jim Brown, Michael Cranston, Martin Hardman, Eftychia Koursari, Rob Lamb, Hazel McDonald, Richard Mathews, Richard Newell, Alonso Pizarro, Marta Roca, and Daniele Zonta
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 795–812,Short summary
Bridges are critical infrastructure components of transport networks. A large number of these critical assets cross or are adjacent to waterways and are therefore exposed to the potentially devastating impact of floods. This paper discusses a series of issues and areas where improvements in research and practice are required in the context of risk assessment and management of bridges exposed to flood hazard, with the ultimate goal of guiding future efforts in improving bridge flood resilience.
Aurélia Bernard, Nathalie Long, Mélanie Becker, Jamal Khan, and Sylvie Fanchette
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 729–751,Short summary
This article reviews current scientific literature in order to define vulnerability in the context of coastal Bangladesh facing cyclonic flooding. A new metric, called the socio-spatial vulnerability index, is defined as a function of both the probability of the cyclonic flood hazard and the sensitivity of delta inhabitants. The main result shows that three very densely populated districts, located in the Ganges delta tidal floodplain, are highly vulnerable to cyclonic flooding.
Sarra Kchouk, Lieke A. Melsen, David W. Walker, and Pieter R. van Oel
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 323–344,Short summary
The aim of our study was to question the validity of the assumed direct linkage between drivers of drought and its impacts on water and food securities, mainly found in the frameworks of drought early warning systems (DEWSs). We analysed more than 5000 scientific studies leading us to the conclusion that the local context can contribute to drought drivers resulting in these drought impacts. Our research aims to increase the relevance and utility of the information provided by DEWSs.
Mattia Amadio, Arthur H. Essenfelder, Stefano Bagli, Sepehr Marzi, Paolo Mazzoli, Jaroslav Mysiak, and Stephen Roberts
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 265–286,Short summary
We estimate the risk associated with storm surge events at two case study locations along the North Adriatic Italian coast, considering sea level rise up to the year 2100, and perform a cost–benefit analysis of planned or proposed coastal renovation projects. The study uses nearshore hydrodynamic modelling. Our findings represent a useful indication for disaster risk management, helping to understand the importance of investing in adaptation and estimating the economic return on investments.
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 245–263,Short summary
We develop the combined return period to stochastically measure hazard and catastrophe events. This is used to estimate a risk curve by stochastic scaling of historical events and averaging corresponding risk parameters in combination with a vulnerability model. We apply the method to extratropical cyclones over Germany and estimate the risk for insured losses. The results are strongly influenced by assumptions about spatial dependence.
Luis Moya, Fernando Garcia, Carlos Gonzales, Miguel Diaz, Carlos Zavala, Miguel Estrada, Fumio Yamazaki, Shunichi Koshimura, Erick Mas, and Bruno Adriano
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 65–70,Short summary
Informal occupation of unused lands for settlements is a critical issue in Peru. In most cases, such areas are unsafe against natural hazards. We performed a time-series analysis of Sentinel-1 images at recent informal settlements in Lima. The result suggests that a low-cost and sustainable monitoring system of informal settlements can be implemented.
Stephen Cunningham, Steven Schuldt, Christopher Chini, and Justin Delorit
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3843–3862,Short summary
The severity of disaster-induced mental health illness outcomes varies based on factors such as socioeconomic standing, age, and degree of exposure. This research proposes a resource allocation framework allowing decision-makers the capability to assess the capacity and scalability of early, intermediate, and long-term mental health treatment and recovery. Ultimately, this framework can inform policy and operational decisions based on community needs and constrained resources post-disaster.
Ante Ivčević, Hubert Mazurek, Lionel Siame, Raquel Bertoldo, Vania Statzu, Kamal Agharroud, Isabel Estrela Rego, Nibedita Mukherjee, and Olivier Bellier
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3749–3765,Short summary
The results from two Mediterranean case studies, in north Morocco and west Sardinia, confirm the importance of interdisciplinarity and risk awareness sessions for risk management. The policy literature and interviews held with the administration, associations and scientists indicate that although recognised, the importance of risk awareness sessions is not necessarily put into practice. As a consequence, this could lead to a failure of risk management policy.
Stefano Terzi, Janez Sušnik, Stefan Schneiderbauer, Silvia Torresan, and Andrea Critto
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3519–3537,Short summary
This study combines outputs from multiple models with statistical assessments of past and future water availability and demand for the Santa Giustina reservoir (Autonomous Province of Trento, Italy). Considering future climate change scenarios, results show high reductions for stored volume and turbined water, with increasing frequency, duration and severity. These results call for the need to adapt to reductions in water availability and effects on the Santa Giustina reservoir management.
Abdi, H. and Williams, L. J.: Principal component analysis, Wiley Interdisciplin. Rev. Comput. Stat., 2, 433–459, https://doi.org/10.1002/wics.101, 2010.
Aksha, S. K., Juran, L., Resler, L. M., and Zhang, Y.: An Analysis of Social Vulnerability to Natural Hazards in Nepal Using a Modified Social Vulnerability Index, Int. J. Disast. Risk Sci., 10, 103–116, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13753-018-0192-7, 2019.
Alizadeh, M., Alizadeh, E., Asadollahpour Kotenaee, S., Shahabi, H., Beiranvand Pour, A., Panahi, M., bin Ahmad, B., and Saro, L.: Social Vulnerability Assessment Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Model for Earthquake Hazard in Tabriz City, Iran, Sustainability, 10, 3376, https://doi.org/10.3390/su10103376, 2018.
Anagnos, T. and Kiremidjian, A. S.: A review of earthquake occurrence models for seismic hazard analysis, Probabil. Eng. Mech., 3, 3–11, https://doi.org/10.1016/0266-8920(88)90002-1, 1988.
Atkinson, G. M. and Boore, D. M.: Empirical Ground-Motion Relations for Subduction-Zone Earthquakes and Their Application to Cascadia and Other Regions, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 93, 1703–1729, https://doi.org/10.1785/0120020156, 2003.
Bal, I. E., Bommer, J. J., Stafford, P. J., Crowley, H., and Pinho, R.: The Influence of Geographical Resolution of Urban Exposure Data in an Earthquake Loss Model for Istanbul, Earthq. Spectra, 26, 619–634, https://doi.org/10.1193/1.3459127, 2010.
Boore, D. M. and Atkinson, G. M.: Ground-Motion Prediction Equations for the Average Horizontal Component of PGA, PGV, and 5 %-Damped PSA at Spectral Periods between 0.01 s and 10.0 s, Earthq. Spectra, 24, 99–138, https://doi.org/10.1193/1.2830434, 2008.
Borden, K. A., Schmidtlein, M. C., Emrich, C. T., Piegorsch, W. W., and Cutter, S. L.: Vulnerability of U.S. Cities to Environmental Hazards, J. Homel. Secur. Emerg. Manage., 4, 5, https://doi.org/10.2202/1547-7355.1279, 2007.
Burby, R. J., Steinberg, L. J., and Basolo, V.: The tenure trap: The vulnerability of renters to joint natural and technological disasters, Urb. Affairs Rev., 39, 32–58, https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087403253053, 2003.
Burton, C. G. and Silva, V.: Assessing Integrated Earthquake Risk in OpenQuake with an Application to Mainland Portugal, Earthq. Spectra, 32, 1383–1403, https://doi.org/10.1193/120814EQS209M, 2016.
Campbell, K. W. and Bozorgnia, Y.: NGA Ground Motion Model for the Geometric Mean Horizontal Component of PGA, PGV, PGD and 5 % Damped Linear Elastic Response Spectra for Periods Ranging from 0.01 to 10 s, Earthq. Spectra, 24, 139–171, https://doi.org/10.1193/1.2857546, 2008.
Carreño, M. L., Cardona, O. D., and Barbat, A. H.: New methodology for urban seismic risk assessment from a holistic perspective, Bull. Earthq. Eng., 10, 547–565, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-011-9302-2, 2012.
Cattell, R. B.: The Scree Test For The Number Of Factors, Multivar. Behav. Res., 1, 245–276, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr0102_10, 1966.
CBS – Central Bureau of Statistic: National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report), https://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic-social/census/documents/Nepal/Nepal-Census-2011-Vol1.pdf (last access: 20 November 2021), 2012.
CBS – Central Bureau of Statistic: Population Monograph of Nepal, Vol. I (Population Dynamics), https://nepal.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/PopulationMonograph2014Volume1.pdf (last access: 20 November 2021), 2014a.
CBS – Central Bureau of Statistic: Population Monograph of Nepal, Vol. III (Economical Demography), https://nepal.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/Population Monograph V02.pdf (last access: 20 November 2021), 2014b.
Chaulagain, H., Rodrigues, H., Silva, V., Spacone, E., and Varum, H.: Seismic risk assessment and hazard mapping in Nepal, Nat. Hazards, 78, 583–602, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-1734-6, 2015.
Chaulagain, H., Rodrigues, H., Silva, V., Spacone, E., and Varum, H.: Earthquake loss estimation for the Kathmandu Valley, Bull. Earthq. Eng., 14, 59–88, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-015-9811-5, 2016.
Chaulagain, H., Gautam, D., and Rodrigues, H.: Revisiting Major Historical Earthquakes in Nepal, in: Impacts and Insights of Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal, Elsevier, 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812808-4.00001-8, 2018.
Chiou, B.-J. and Youngs, R. R.: An NGA Model for the Average Horizontal Component of Peak Ground Motion and Response Spectra, Earthq. Spectra, 24, 173–215, https://doi.org/10.1193/1.2894832, 2008.
Contreras, D., Chamorro, A., and Wilkinson, S.: Review article: The spatial dimension in the assessment of urban socio-economic vulnerability related to geohazards, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1663–1687, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-20-1663-2020, 2020.
Cornell, C. A.: Engineering seismic risk analysis, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 58, 1583–1606, https://doi.org/10.1785/BSSA0580051583, 1968.
Cota, A. A., Longman, R. S., Holden, R. R., Fekken, G. C., and Xinaris, S.: Interpolating 95th Percentile Eigenvalues from Random Data: An Empirical Example, Educ. Psychol. Meas., 53, 585–596, https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164493053003001, 1993.
Cutter, S. L. and Finch, C.: Temporal and Spatial Changes in Social Vulnerability to Natural Hazards, in: Planning for Climate Change, vol. 105, Routledge, 129–137, https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351201117-16, 2018.
Cutter, S. L., Boruff, B. J., and Shirley, W. L.: Social Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards, 84, 242–261, Soc. Sci. Q., https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-6237.8402002, 2003.
Department of Health Services: Annual Report Department of Health Services 2070/71 (2013/2014), http://dohs.gov.np/publications/annual_report_2070_71/ (last access: 20 November 2021), 2013.
Dixit, A.: Floods and Vulnerability: Need to Rethink Flood Management, in: Flood Problem and Management in South Asia, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 155–179, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-0137-2_8, 2003.
Douglas, J.: Physical vulnerability modelling in natural hazard risk assessment, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 7, 283–288, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-7-283-2007, 2007.
Fang, C., Spencer Jr., B. F., Xu, J., Tan, P., and Zhou, F.: Optimization of damped outrigger systems subject to stochastic excitation, Eng. Struct., 191, 280–291, 2019.
Fekete, A.: Validation of a social vulnerability index in context to river-floods in Germany, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 393–403, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-9-393-2009, 2009.
Fernandez, J., Mattingly, S., Bendimerad, F., and Cardona, O. D.: Application of indicators in urban and megacities disaster risk management: a case study of metro Manila, Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative (EMI), https://www.preventionweb.net/files/1323_3cd2007MISReportTR0701.pdf (last access: 20 November 2021), 2006.
Franklin, S.: Science as Culture, Cultures of Science, Annu. Rev. Anthropol., 24, 163–184, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.24.100195.001115, 1995.
Frigerio, I., Ventura, S., Strigaro, D., Mattavelli, M., de Amicis, M., Mugnano, S., and Boffi, M.: A GIS-based approach to identify the spatial variability of social vulnerability to seismic hazard in Italy, Appl. Geogr., 74, 12–22, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2016.06.014, 2016.
Gautam, D.: Assessment of social vulnerability to natural hazards in Nepal, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2313–2320, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-17-2313-2017, 2017.
Glorfeld, L. W.: An Improvement on Horn's Parallel Analysis Methodology for Selecting the Correct Number of Factors to Retain, Educ. Psychol. Meas., 55, 377–393, https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164495055003002, 1995.
Gómez Zapata, J. C., Brinckmann, N., Harig, S., Zafrir, R., Pittore, M., Cotton, F., and Babeyko, A.: Variable-resolution building exposure modelling for earthquake and tsunami scenario-based risk assessment: an application case in Lima, Peru, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3599–3628, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-21-3599-2021, 2021.
Gómez Zapata, J. C., Pittore, M., Cotton, F., Lilienkamp, H., Shinde, S., Aguirre, P., and Santa María, H.: Epistemic uncertainty of probabilistic building exposure compositions in scenario-based earthquake loss models, Bull. Earthq. Eng., 20, 2401–2438, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-021-01312-9, 2022.
Guo, X. and Kapucu, N.: Assessing social vulnerability to earthquake disaster using rough analytic hierarchy process method: A case study of Hanzhong City, China, Safe. Sci., 125, 104625, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2020.104625, 2020.
Hewitt, K.: Preventable disasters. Addressing social vulnerability, institutional risk and civil ethics, Geographische Rundschau, 3, 43–52, 2007.
Horn, J. L.: A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis, Psychometrika, 30, 179–185, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02289447, 1965.
Humphreys, L. G. and Montanelli Jr., R. G.: An Investigation of the Parallel Analysis Criterion for Determining the Number of Common Factors, Multivar. Behav. Res., 10, 193–205, https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr1002_5, 1975.
IBM Support: Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure for identity correlation matrix, https://www.ibm.com/support/pages/kaiser-meyer-olkin-measure-identity-correlation-matrix (last access: 20 November 2021), 2020.
Jolliffe, I. T.: Principal Component Analysis, 2nd Edn., Springer, https://doi.org/10.1007/b98835, 2002.
Kaiser, H. F.: The Application of Electronic Computers to Factor Analysis, Educ. Psychol. Meas., 20, 141–151, https://doi.org/10.1177/001316446002000116, 1960.
Kaiser, H. F.: A second generation little jiffy, Psychometrika, 35, 401–415, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02291817, 1970.
Kalakonas, P., Silva, V., Mouyiannou, A., and Rao, A.: Exploring the impact of epistemic uncertainty on a regional probabilistic seismic risk assessment model, Nat. Hazards, 104, 997–1020, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-020-04201-7, 2020.
Khazai, B., Merz, M., Schulz, C., and Borst, D.: An integrated indicator framework for spatial assessment of industrial and social vulnerability to indirect disaster losses, Nat. Hazards, 67, 145–167, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0551-z, 2013.
Mainali, J. and Pricope, N. G.: Mapping the need for adaptation: assessing drought vulnerability using the livelihood vulnerability index approach in a mid-hill region of Nepal, Clim. Dev., 11, 607–622, https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2018.1521329, 2019.
Malakar, Y.: Community-Based Rainfall Observation for Landslide Monitoring in Western Nepal, in: Landslide Science for a Safer Geoenvironment, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 757–763, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05050-8_117, 2014.
Martins, L., Silva, V., Crowley, H., and Cavalieri, F.: Vulnerability modellers toolkit, an open-source platform for vulnerability analysis, Bull, Earthq, Eng,, 19, 5691–5709, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-021-01187-w, 2021.
Mileti, D.: Disasters by Design: A reassessment of natural hazards in the United States, Joseph Henry Press, https://doi.org/10.17226/5782, 1999.
Mishra, S. R., Khanal, P., Karki, D. K., Kallestrup, P., and Enemark, U.: National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation, Glob. Health Action, 8, 28763, https://doi.org/10.3402/gha.v8.28763, 2015.
Mori, T., Shigefuji, M., Bijukchhen, S., Kanno, T., and Takai, N.: Ground motion prediction equation for the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal based on strong motion records during the 2015 Gorkha Nepal earthquake sequence, Soil Dynam. Earthq. Eng., 135, 106208, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2020.106208, 2020.
Pachauri, R. K., Allen, M. R., Barros, V. R., Broome, J., Cramer, W., Christ, R., Church, J. A., Clarke, L., Dahe, Q., and Dasgupta, P.: Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/05/SYR_AR5_FINAL_full_wcover.pdf (last access: 20 November 2021), 2014.
Pagani, M., Monelli, D., Weatherill, G., Danciu, L., Crowley, H., Silva, V., Henshaw, P., Butler, L., Nastasi, M., Panzeri, L., Simionato, M., and Vigano, D.: OpenQuake Engine: An Open Hazard (and Risk) Software for the Global Earthquake Model, Seismol. Res. Lett., 85, 692–702, https://doi.org/10.1785/0220130087, 2014.
Pandey, M. R., Tandukar, R. P., Avouac, J. P., Vergne, J., and Héritier, T.: Seismotectonics of the Nepal Himalaya from a local seismic network, J. Asian Earth. Sci., 17, 703–712, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1367-9120(99)00034-6, 1999.
Pandey, M. R., Chitrakar, G. R., Kafle, B., Sapkota, S. N., Rajaure, S. N., and Gautam, U. P.: Seismic hazard map of Nepal, 2002.
Pherali, T.: Education: Cultural Reproduction, Revolution and Peacebuilding in Conflict-Affected Societies, in: The Palgrave Handbook of Disciplinary and Regional Approaches to Peace, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 193–205, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-137-40761-0_15, 2016.
Rahman, N., Ansary, M. A., and Islam, I.: GIS based mapping of vulnerability to earthquake and fire hazard in Dhaka city, Bangladesh, Int. J. Disast. Risk Reduct., 13, 291–300, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2015.07.003, 2015.
Rao, A., Dutta, D., Kalita, P., Ackerley, N., Silva, V., Raghunandan, M., Ghosh, J., Ghosh, S., Brzev, S., and Dasgupta, K.: Probabilistic seismic risk assessment of India, Earthq. Spectra, 36, 345–371, https://doi.org/10.1177/8755293020957374, 2020.
Schiappapietra, E. and Douglas, J.: Modelling the spatial correlation of earthquake ground motion: Insights from the literature, data from the 2016–2017 Central Italy earthquake sequence and ground-motion simulations, Earth Sci. Rev., 203, 103139, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2020.103139, 2020.
Schmidtlein, M. C., Shafer, J. M., Berry, M., and Cutter, S. L.: Modeled earthquake losses and social vulnerability in Charleston, South Carolina, Appl. Geogr., 31, 269–281, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2010.06.001, 2011.
Sharma, P., Guha-Khasnobis, B., and Khanal, D. R.: Nepal human development report 2014, https://www.npc.gov.np/images/category/NHDR_Report_2014.pdf (last access: 20 November 2021), 2014.
Shrestha, A.: Vulnerability assessment of weather disasters in Syangja District, Nepal: A case study in Putalibazaar Municipality, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255616385_Vulnerability_Assessment_of_Weather_Disasters_in_Syangja_District_Nepal_A_Case_Study_in_Putalibazaar_Municipality (last access: 20 November 2021), 2005.
Silva, V., Amo-Oduro, D., Calderon, A., Costa, C., Dabbeek, J., Despotaki, V., Martins, L., Pagani, M., Rao, A., Simionato, M., Viganò, D., Yepes-Estrada, C., Acevedo, A., Crowley, H., Horspool, N., Jaiswal, K., Journeay, M., and Pittore, M.: Development of a global seismic risk model, Earthq. Spectra, 36, 372–394, https://doi.org/10.1177/8755293019899953, 2020.
Simionato, M.: gem/oq-engine, GitHub [code], https://github.com/gem/oq-engine, last access: 5 October 2022.
Stevens, V. L., Shrestha, S. N., and Maharjan, D. K.: Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment of Nepal, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 108, 3488–3510, https://doi.org/10.1785/0120180022, 2018.
Tate, E.: Social vulnerability indices: a comparative assessment using uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, Nat. Hazards, 63, 325–347, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0152-2, 2012.
Thapa, D. R. and Guoxin, W.: Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis in Nepal, Earthq. Eng. Eng. Vibrat., 12, 577–586, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11803-013-0191-z, 2013.
Thompson, B. and Daniel, L. G.: Factor Analytic Evidence for the Construct Validity of Scores: A Historical Overview and Some Guidelines, Educ. Psychol. Meas., 56, 197–208, https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164496056002001, 1996.
Ulak, N.: Nepal's Earthquake-2015: Its Impact on Various Sectors, Gaze, 7, 58–86, https://doi.org/10.3126/gaze.v7i0.15120, 2016.
UNISDR: Terminology on disaster risk reduction, https://www.preventionweb.net/files/7817_UNISDRTerminologyEnglish.pdf (last access: 20 November 2021), 2009.
Velicer, W. F., Eaton, C. A., and Fava, J. L.: Construct Explication through Factor or Component Analysis: A Review and Evaluation of Alternative Procedures for Determining the Number of Factors or Components, in: Problems and Solutions in Human Assessment, Springer US, Boston, MA, 41–71, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-4397-8_3, 2000.
Vivek, P., Singh, S. N., Mishra, S., and Donavan, D. T.: Parallel Analysis Engine to Aid in Determining Number of Factors to Retain using R, https://analytics.gonzaga.edu/parallelengine/ (last access: 15 September 2021), 2017.
Weatherill, G. A., Silva, V., Crowley, H., and Bazzurro, P.: Exploring the impact of spatial correlations and uncertainties for portfolio analysis in probabilistic seismic loss estimation, Bull. Earthq. Eng., 13, 957–981, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-015-9730-5, 2015.
Youngs, R. R., Chiou, S.-J., Silva, W. J., and Humphrey, J. R.: Strong Ground Motion Attenuation Relationships for Subduction Zone Earthquakes, Seismol. Res. Lett., 68, 58–73, https://doi.org/10.1785/gssrl.68.1.58, 1997.
Zwick, W. R. and Velicer, W. F.: Comparison of five rules for determining the number of components to retain, Psychol. Bull., 99, 432–442, https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.99.3.432, 1986.
This is a comprehensive approach to risk assessment that considers the dynamic relationship between loss and damage. The study combines physical risk with social science to mitigate the disaster caused by earthquakes in Nepal, taking socioeconomical parameters into account such that the risk estimates can be monitored over time. The main objective is to recognize the cause of and solutions to seismic hazard, building the interrelationship between individual, natural, and built-in environments.
This is a comprehensive approach to risk assessment that considers the dynamic relationship...