Articles | Volume 20, issue 1
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 197–220, 2020
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 197–220, 2020

Research article 17 Jan 2020

Research article | 17 Jan 2020

Sandbag replacement systems – a nonsensical and costly alternative to sandbagging?

Lena Lankenau et al.

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Cited articles

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and FM Approvals: American National Standard for Flood Abatement Equipment, ANSI/FM Approvals 2510, FM Approvals, Norwood, 2014. 
AQUARIWA: Mobiler Hochwasserschutz in Gartow im Juni 2013, available at:, last access: 25 September 2019. 
Biggar, K. and Masala, S.: Alternatives to sandbags for temporary flood protection, Alberta Transportation and Utilities Disaster Services Branch and Emergency Preparedness Canada, Edmonton, AB and Ottawa, ON, Canada, 1998. 
British Standards Institution (BSI): PAS 1188-2:2014 Flood protection products – Specification, Part 2: Temporary products, Third Edition, The British Standards Institution Group Headquarters, London, 2014. 
British Standards Institution (BSI): British Standards Institution Homepage, available at:, last access: 25 September 2019a. 
Short summary
Sandbag and sandbag replacement systems (SBRSs) for flood defence are compared in terms of functionality (practical tests), costs, time, helpers and logistics (fictitious realistic scenarios). SBRSs are comparable in their functionality to sandbagging. All of the SBRSs considered show time-saving and logistical advantages. Under the assumed conditions, the higher investment costs of the SBRSs are offset with one subsequent reuse of the system owing to lower costs for helpers and logistics.
Final-revised paper