Articles | Volume 17, issue 5
Research article 19 May 2017
Research article | 19 May 2017
Probabilistic flood extent estimates from social media flood observations
Tom Brouwer et al.
No articles found.
Dirk Eilander, Willem van Verseveld, Dai Yamazaki, Albrecht Weerts, Hessel C. Winsemius, and Philip J. Ward
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5287–5313,Short summary
Digital elevation models and derived flow directions are crucial to distributed hydrological modeling. As the spatial resolution of models is typically coarser than these data, we need methods to upscale flow direction data while preserving the river structure. We propose the Iterative Hydrography Upscaling (IHU) method and show it outperforms other often-applied methods. We publish the multi-resolution MERIT Hydro IHU hydrography dataset and the algorithm as part of the pyflwdir Python package.
Oleksandr Mialyk, Joep F. Schyns, Martijn J. Booij, and Rick J. Hogeboom
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
The growing demand for crops brings us to sustainable limits of water use. Thus, to stay within these limits, we need to decrease crop water footprints (WF). To see how crop WFs change in time, we develop a new global crop model (called ACEA) and apply it to study maize during 1986–2016. We see that average maize WF has decreased by ~35 %, but total water consumption has increased by ~49 %. Other crops should be studied to see the overall dynamics in WFs of crop production worldwide.
Seyedabdolhossein Mehvar, Kathelijne Wijnberg, Bas Borsje, Norman Kerle, Jan Maarten Schraagen, Joanne Vinke-de Kruijf, Karst Geurs, Andreas Hartmann, Rick Hogeboom, and Suzanne Hulscher
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1383–1407,Short summary
This review synthesizes and complements existing knowledge in designing resilient vital infrastructure systems (VIS). Results from a systematic literature review indicate that (i) VIS are still being built without taking resilience explicitly into account and (ii) measures to enhance the resilience of VIS have not been widely applied in practice. The main pressing topic to address is the integration of the combined social, ecological, and technical resilience of these systems.
Jerom P. M. Aerts, Steffi Uhlemann-Elmer, Dirk Eilander, and Philip J. Ward
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3245–3260,Short summary
We compare and analyse flood hazard maps from eight global flood models that represent the current state of the global flood modelling community. We apply our comparison to China as a case study, and for the first time, we include industry models, pluvial flooding, and flood protection standards. We find substantial variability between the flood hazard maps in the modelled inundated area and exposed gross domestic product (GDP) across multiple return periods and in expected annual exposed GDP.
Chao Gao, Martijn J. Booij, and Yue-Ping Xu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3251–3269,Short summary
This paper studies the impact of climate change on high and low flows and quantifies the contribution of uncertainty sources from representative concentration pathways (RCPs), global climate models (GCMs) and internal climate variability in extreme flows. Internal climate variability was reflected in a stochastic rainfall model. The results show the importance of internal climate variability and GCM uncertainty in high flows and GCM and RCP uncertainty in low flows especially for the far future.
Filipe Galiforni-Silva, Kathelijne M. Wijnberg, and Suzanne J. M. H. Hulscher
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 335–350,Short summary
Storm surges are often related to coastal dune erosion. We found that, for specific coastal settings, storm surges may enhance dune growth rather than only undermine it. Using a computer model and elevation data, we noticed that storm surges could deposit sand onto the sand flat from sand previously deposited closer to the sea. As they move to areas farther from the sea, it becomes easier for the wind to move this sand to the dunes. These findings may help coastal managers and policymakers.
Timothy Tiggeloven, Hans de Moel, Hessel C. Winsemius, Dirk Eilander, Gilles Erkens, Eskedar Gebremedhin, Andres Diaz Loaiza, Samantha Kuzma, Tianyi Luo, Charles Iceland, Arno Bouwman, Jolien van Huijstee, Willem Ligtvoet, and Philip J. Ward
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1025–1044,Short summary
We present a framework to evaluate the benefits and costs of coastal adaptation through dikes to reduce future flood risk. If no adaptation takes place, we find that global coastal flood risk increases 150-fold by 2080, with sea-level rise contributing the most. Moreover, 15 countries account for 90 % of this increase; that adaptation shows high potential to cost-effectively reduce flood risk. The results will be integrated into the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer web tool.
Anaïs Couasnon, Dirk Eilander, Sanne Muis, Ted I. E. Veldkamp, Ivan D. Haigh, Thomas Wahl, Hessel C. Winsemius, and Philip J. Ward
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 489–504,Short summary
When a high river discharge coincides with a high storm surge level, this can exarcebate flood level, depth, and duration, resulting in a so-called compound flood event. These events are not currently included in global flood models. In this research, we analyse the timing and correlation between modelled discharge and storm surge level time series in deltas and estuaries. Our results provide a first indication of regions along the global coastline with a high compound flooding potential.
Jannis M. Hoch, Dirk Eilander, Hiroaki Ikeuchi, Fedor Baart, and Hessel C. Winsemius
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1723–1735,Short summary
Flood events are often complex in their origin and dynamics. The choice of computer model to simulate can hence determine which level of complexity can be represented. We here compare different models varying in complexity (hydrology with routing, 1-D routing, 1D/2D hydrodynamics) and assess how model choice influences the accuracy of results. This was achieved by using GLOFRIM, a model coupling framework. Results show that accuracy depends on the model choice and the output variable considered.
Filipe Galiforni Silva, Kathelijne M. Wijnberg, and Suzanne J. M. H. Hulscher
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Storms are often related to coastal dune erosion. We found that, for specific coastal settings, storms may enhance dune growth rather than only undermine it. Using a computer model and long-term monitoring data, we see that storms may bring sand from areas that are frequently inundated to areas that are often above the water. When above the water, this sand can be more easily transported by the wind and deposited on the dunes. These findings may help coastal managers and policymakers.
Harm-Jan F. Benninga, Martijn J. Booij, Renata J. Romanowicz, and Tom H. M. Rientjes
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5273–5291,Short summary
Accurate flood and low-streamflow forecasting are important. The paper presents a methodology to evaluate ensemble streamflow-forecasting systems for different lead times; low, medium and high streamflow; and related runoff-generating processes. We applied the methodology to a study forecasting system of the Biała Tarnowska River in Poland. The results provide valuable information about the forecasting system: in which conditions it can be used and how the system can be improved effectively.
Erin Coughlan de Perez, Bart van den Hurk, Maarten K. van Aalst, Irene Amuron, Deus Bamanya, Tristan Hauser, Brenden Jongma, Ana Lopez, Simon Mason, Janot Mendler de Suarez, Florian Pappenberger, Alexandra Rueth, Elisabeth Stephens, Pablo Suarez, Jurjen Wagemaker, and Ervin Zsoter
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3549–3560,Short summary
Many flood disaster impacts could be avoided by preventative action; however, early action is not guaranteed. This article demonstrates the design of a new system of forecast-based financing, which automatically triggers action when a flood forecast arrives, before a potential disaster. We establish "action triggers" for northern Uganda based on a global flood forecasting system, verifying these forecasts and assessing the uncertainties inherent in setting a trigger in a data-scarce location.
J. F. Schyns, A. Y. Hoekstra, and M. J. Booij
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 4581–4608,Short summary
The paper draws attention to the fact that green water (soil moisture returning to the atmosphere through evaporation) is a scarce resource, because its availability is limited and there are competing demands for green water. Around 80 indicators of green water availability and scarcity are reviewed and classified based on their scope and purpose of measurement. This is useful in order to properly include limitations in green water availability in water scarcity assessments.
M. C. Demirel, M. J. Booij, and A. Y. Hoekstra
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 275–291,Short summary
This paper investigates the skill of 90-day low-flow forecasts using three models. From the results, it appears that all models are prone to over-predict runoff during low-flow periods using ensemble seasonal meteorological forcing. The largest range for 90-day low-flow forecasts is found for the GR4J model. Overall, the uncertainty from ensemble P forecasts has a larger effect on seasonal low-flow forecasts than the uncertainty from ensemble PET forecasts and initial model conditions.
P. López López, J. S. Verkade, A. H. Weerts, and D. P. Solomatine
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3411–3428,
W. R. van Esse, C. Perrin, M. J. Booij, D. C. M. Augustijn, F. Fenicia, D. Kavetski, and F. Lobligeois
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4227–4239,
M. C. Demirel, M. J. Booij, and A. Y. Hoekstra
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4241–4257,
Related subject area
Databases, GIS, Remote Sensing, Early Warning Systems and Monitoring TechnologiesTimely prediction potential of landslide early warning systems with multispectral remote sensing: a conceptual approach tested in the Sattelkar, AustriaCHILDA – Czech Historical Landslide DatabaseReview article: Detection of actionable tweets in crisis eventsLong-term magnetic anomalies and their possible relationship to the latest greater Chilean earthquakes in the context of the seismo-electromagnetic theoryHazMapper: a global open-source natural hazard mapping application in Google Earth EngineOpportunities and risks of disaster data from social media: a systematic review of incident informationEUNADICS early warning system dedicated to support aviation in case of crisis from natural airborne hazard and radionuclide cloudOnline urban-waterlogging monitoring based on a recurrent neural network for classification of microblogging textPredicting power outages caused by extratropical stormsNear-real-time automated classification of seismic signals of slope failures with continuous random forestsAssessing the accuracy of remotely sensed fire datasets across the southwestern Mediterranean BasinUAV survey method to Monitoring and analysing geological hazards: The Case study of mud volcano of Villaggio Santa Barbara, Caltanissetta (Sicily)Responses to severe weather warnings and affective decision-makingThe object-specific flood damage database HOWAS 21A spaceborne SAR-based procedure to support the detection of landslidesGIS-based DRASTIC and composite DRASTIC indices for assessing groundwater vulnerability in the Baghin aquifer, Kerman, IranReview article: The spatial dimension in the assessment of urban socio-economic vulnerability related to geohazardsDesign and implementation of a mobile device app for network-based earthquake early warning systems (EEWSs): application to the PRESTo EEWS in southern ItalyCCAF-DB: the Caribbean and Central American active fault databaseWhy keep alert sirens in France?Evaluation of a combined drought indicator and its potential for agricultural drought prediction in southern SpainStudy on real-time correction of site amplification factorThree-dimensional rockfall shape back analysis: methods and implicationsEffects of high-resolution geostationary satellite imagery on the predictability of tropical thunderstorms over Southeast AsiaInSAR technique applied to the monitoring of the Qinghai–Tibet RailwayUnderstanding the spatiotemporal development of human settlement in hurricane-prone areas on the US Atlantic and Gulf coasts using nighttime remote sensingPre-disaster mapping with drones: an urban case study in Victoria, British Columbia, CanadaNew approaches to modelling of local seismic amplification susceptibility using direct characteristics of influencing criteria: case study of Bam City, IranSMC-Flood database: a high-resolution press database on flood cases for the Spanish Mediterranean coast (1960–2015)Statistical analysis for satellite-index-based insurance to define damaged pasture thresholdsMonitoring the seasonal dynamics of soil salinization in the Yellow River delta of China using Landsat dataTowards early warning of gravitational slope failure with co-detection of microseismic activity: the case of an active rock glacierDangerous degree forecast of soil loss on highway slopes in mountainous areas of the Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau (China) using the Revised Universal Soil Loss EquationAssessment of geodetic velocities using GPS campaign measurements over long baseline lengthsResponse time to flood events using a social vulnerability index (ReTSVI)Delimitation of flood areas based on a calibrated a DEM and geoprocessing: case study on the Uruguay River, Itaqui, southern BrazilIdentification and classification of urban micro-vulnerabilities in tsunami evacuation routes for the city of Iquique, ChileUsability of aerial video footage for 3-D scene reconstruction and structural damage assessmentUsing kites for 3-D mapping of gullies at decimetre-resolution over several square kilometres: a case study on the Kamech catchment, TunisiaA new approach for land degradation and desertification assessment using geospatial techniquesActive tectonics of the onshore Hengchun Fault using UAS DSM combined with ALOS PS-InSAR time series (Southern Taiwan)Geomorphological evolution of landslides near an active normal fault in northern Taiwan, as revealed by lidar and unmanned aircraft system dataSlope stability and rockfall assessment of volcanic tuffs using RPAS with 2-D FEM slope modellingUse of a remotely piloted aircraft system for hazard assessment in a rocky mining area (Lucca, Italy)A method for using unmanned aerial vehicles for emergency investigation of single geo-hazards and sample applications of this methodBrief communication: Vehicle routing problem and UAV application in the post-earthquake scenarioMultiple remote-sensing assessment of the catastrophic collapse in Langtang Valley induced by the 2015 Gorkha earthquakeGB-InSAR monitoring of slope deformations in a mountainous area affected by debris flow eventsBig data managing in a landslide early warning system: experience from a ground-based interferometric radar applicationApplication of UAV-SfM photogrammetry and aerial lidar to a disastrous flood: repeated topographic measurement of a newly formed crevasse splay of the Kinu River, central Japan
Doris Hermle, Markus Keuschnig, Ingo Hartmeyer, Robert Delleske, and Michael Krautblatter
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2753–2772,Short summary
Multispectral remote sensing imagery enables landslide detection and monitoring, but its applicability to time-critical early warning is rarely studied. We present a concept to operationalise its use for landslide early warning, aiming to extend lead time. We tested PlanetScope and unmanned aerial system images on a complex mass movement and compared processing times to historic benchmarks. Acquired data are within the forecasting window, indicating the feasibility for landslide early warning.
Michal Bíl, Pavel Raška, Lukáš Dolák, and Jan Kubeček
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2581–2596,Short summary
The online landslide database CHILDA (Czech Historical Landslide Database) summarises information about landslides which occurred in the area of Czechia (the Czech Republic). The database is freely accessible via the https://childa.cz/ website. It includes 699 records (spanning the period of 1132–1989). Overall, 55 % of all recorded landslide events occurred only within 15 years of the extreme landslide incidence.
Anna Kruspe, Jens Kersten, and Friederike Klan
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1825–1845,Short summary
Messages on social media can be an important source of information during crisis situations. This article reviews approaches for the reliable detection of informative messages in a flood of data. We demonstrate the varying goals of these approaches and present existing data sets. We then compare approaches based (1) on keyword and location filtering, (2) on crowdsourcing, and (3) on machine learning. We also point out challenges and suggest future research.
Enrique Guillermo Cordaro, Patricio Venegas-Aravena, and David Laroze
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1785–1806,Short summary
We developed a methodology that generates free externally disturbed magnetic variations in ground magnetometers close to the Chilean convergent margin. Spectral analysis (~ mHz) and magnetic anomalies increased prior to large Chilean earthquakes (Maule 2010, Mw 8.8; Iquique 2014, Mw 8.2; Illapel 2015, Mw 8.3). These findings relate to microcracks within the lithosphere due to stress state changes. This physical evidence should be thought of as a last stage of the earthquake preparation process.
Corey M. Scheip and Karl W. Wegmann
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1495–1511,Short summary
For many decades, natural disasters have been monitored by trained analysts using multiple satellite images to observe landscape change. This approach is incredibly useful, but our new tool, HazMapper, offers researchers and the scientifically curious public a web-accessible cloud-based tool to perform similar analysis. We intend for the tool to both be used in scientific research and provide rapid response to global natural disasters like landslides, wildfires, and volcanic eruptions.
Matti Wiegmann, Jens Kersten, Hansi Senaratne, Martin Potthast, Friederike Klan, and Benno Stein
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1431–1444,Short summary
In this paper, we study when social media is an adequate source to find metadata about incidents that cannot be acquired by traditional means. We identify six major use cases: impact assessment and verification of model predictions, narrative generation, recruiting citizen volunteers, supporting weakly institutionalized areas, narrowing surveillance areas, and reporting triggers for periodical surveillance.
Hugues Brenot, Nicolas Theys, Lieven Clarisse, Jeroen van Gent, Daniel R. Hurtmans, Sophie Vandenbussche, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Lucia Mona, Timo Virtanen, Andreas Uppstu, Mikhail Sofiev, Luca Bugliaro, Margarita Vázquez-Navarro, Pascal Hedelt, Michelle Maree Parks, Sara Barsotti, Mauro Coltelli, William Moreland, Delia Arnold-Arias, Marcus Hirtl, Tuomas Peltonen, Juhani Lahtinen, Klaus Sievers, Florian Lipok, Rolf Rüfenacht, Alexander Haefele, Maxime Hervo, Saskia Wagenaar, Wim Som de Cerff, Jos de Laat, Arnoud Apituley, Piet Stammes, Quentin Laffineur, Andy Delcloo, Robertson Lennart, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Arturo Vargas, Markus Kerschbaum, Christian Resch, Raimund Zopp, Matthieu Plu, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Michel Van Roozendael, and Gerhard Wotawa
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for NHESSShort summary
The purpose of the EUNADICS prototype Early Warning System (EWS) is to proceed the combined use of harmonise data products from satellite, ground-based and in situ instruments to produce alerts of airborne hazard (volcanic, dust, smoke and radionuclide clouds), satisfying the requirement of ATM stakeholders (www.eunadics.eu).
Hui Liu, Ya Hao, Wenhao Zhang, Hanyue Zhang, Fei Gao, and Jinping Tong
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1179–1194,Short summary
We trained a recurrent neural network model to classify microblogging posts related to urban waterlogging and establish an online monitoring system of urban waterlogging caused by flood disasters. We manually curated more than 4400 waterlogging posts to train the RNN model so that it can precisely identify waterlogging-related posts of Sina Weibo to timely determine urban waterlogging.
Roope Tervo, Ilona Láng, Alexander Jung, and Antti Mäkelä
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 607–627,Short summary
Predicting the number of power outages caused by extratropical storms is a key challenge for power grid operators. We introduce a novel method to predict the storm severity for the power grid employing ERA5 reanalysis data combined with a forest inventory. The storms are first identified from the data and then classified using several machine-learning methods. While there is plenty of room to improve, the results are already usable, with support vector classifier providing the best performance.
Michaela Wenner, Clément Hibert, Alec van Herwijnen, Lorenz Meier, and Fabian Walter
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 339–361,Short summary
Mass movements constitute a risk to property and human life. In this study we use machine learning to automatically detect and classify slope failure events using ground vibrations. We explore the influence of non-ideal though commonly encountered conditions: poor network coverage, small number of events, and low signal-to-noise ratios. Our approach enables us to detect the occurrence of rare events of high interest in a large data set of more than a million windowed seismic signals.
Luiz Felipe Galizia, Thomas Curt, Renaud Barbero, and Marcos Rodrigues
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 73–86,Short summary
This paper aims to provide a quantitative evaluation of three remotely sensed fire datasets which have recently emerged as an important resource to improve our understanding of fire regimes. Our findings suggest that remotely sensed fire datasets can be used to proxy variations in fire activity on monthly and annual timescales; however, caution is advised when drawing information from smaller fires (< 100 ha) across the Mediterranean region.
Fabio Brighenti, Francesco Carnemolla, Danilo Messina, and Giorgio De Guidi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
In this paper we propose a methodology to mitigate hazard in a natural environment in an urbanised context. The deformation of the ground is precursor of paroxysm in mud volcanoes. Therefore, through the analysis of the deformation supported by a statistical approach, this methodology was tested to reduce the hazard around the mud volcano. In the future, the goal is that this dangerous area will became both a naturalistic heritage and a source of development for the community of the area.
Philippe Weyrich, Anna Scolobig, Florian Walther, and Anthony Patt
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2811–2821,
Patric Kellermann, Kai Schröter, Annegret H. Thieken, Sören-Nils Haubrock, and Heidi Kreibich
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2503–2519,Short summary
The flood damage database HOWAS 21 contains object-speciﬁc ﬂood damage data resulting from fluvial, pluvial and groundwater flooding. The datasets incorporate various variables of ﬂood hazard, exposure, vulnerability and direct tangible damage at properties from several economic sectors. This paper presents HOWAS 21 and highlights exemplary analyses to demonstrate the use of HOWAS 21 flood damage data.
Giuseppe Esposito, Ivan Marchesini, Alessandro Cesare Mondini, Paola Reichenbach, Mauro Rossi, and Simone Sterlacchini
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2379–2395,Short summary
In this article, we present an automatic processing chain aimed to support the detection of landslides that induce sharp land cover changes. The chain exploits free software and spaceborne SAR data, allowing the systematic monitoring of wide mountainous regions exposed to mass movements. In the test site, we verified a general accordance between the spatial distribution of seismically induced landslides and the detected land cover changes, demonstrating its potential use in emergency management.
Mohammad Malakootian and Majid Nozari
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2351–2363,Short summary
The present study estimated the Kerman–Baghin aquifer vulnerability using DRASTIC and composite DRASTIC (CDRASTIC) indices with the aid of geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The aquifer vulnerability maps indicated very similar results, identifying the north-west parts of the aquifer as areas with high to very high vulnerability. According to the results, parts of the studied aquifer have a high vulnerability and require protective measures.
Diana Contreras, Alondra Chamorro, and Sean Wilkinson
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1663–1687,Short summary
The socio-economic condition of the population determines their vulnerability to earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, landslides, soil erosion and land degradation. This condition is estimated mainly from population censuses. The lack to access to basic services, proximity to hazard zones, poverty and population density highly influence the vulnerability of communities. Mapping the location of this vulnerable population makes it possible to prevent and mitigate their risk.
Simona Colombelli, Francesco Carotenuto, Luca Elia, and Aldo Zollo
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 921–931,Short summary
We developed a mobile app for Android devices which receives the alerts generated by a network-based early warning system, predicts the expected ground-shaking intensity and the available lead time at the user position, and provides customized messages to inform the user about the proper reaction to the alert. The app represents a powerful tool for informing in real time a wide audience of end users and stakeholders about the potential damaging shaking in the occurrence of an earthquake.
Richard Styron, Julio García-Pelaez, and Marco Pagani
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 831–857,Short summary
The Caribbean and Central American region is both tectonically active and densely populated, leading to a large population that is exposed to earthquake hazards. Until now, no comprehensive fault data covering the region have been available. We present a new public fault database for Central America and the Caribbean that synthesizes published studies with new mapping from remote sensing to provide fault sources for the CCARA seismic hazard and risk analysis project and to aid future research.
Johnny Douvinet, Anna Serra-Llobet, Mathias Kondolf, Esteban Bopp, and Mathieu Péroche
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
This study aims at underlying reasons and factors explaining why sirens are the primary alerting tools available in France, and why successive governments have maintained their trust in these tools since the end of World War II, despite their well-known limitations (32 % of the residents covered in a radius of 1 km, no-sense for people, slowness in the validation process). Analysing the changes observed in Belgium and USA stresses the need for a multi-channel platform and a common protocol (CAP).
María del Pilar Jiménez-Donaire, Ana Tarquis, and Juan Vicente Giráldez
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 21–33,Short summary
A new combined drought indicator (CDI) is proposed that integrates rainfall, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics. The performance of this indicator was evaluated against crop damage data from agricultural insurance schemes in five different areas in SW Spain. Results show that this indicator was able to predict important droughts in 2004–2005 and 2011–2012, marked by crop damage of between 70 % and 95 % of the total insured area. This opens important applications for improving insurance schemes.
Quancai Xie, Qiang Ma, Jingfa Zhang, and Haiying Yu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2827–2839,Short summary
This paper evaluates a new method for modeling the site amplification factor. Through implementing this method and making simulations for different cases, we find that this method shows better performance than the previous method and JMA report. We better understand the advantages and disadvantages of this method, although there are some problems that need to be considered carefully and solved; it shows good potential to be used in future earthquake early warning systems.
David A. Bonneau, D. Jean Hutchinson, Paul-Mark DiFrancesco, Melanie Coombs, and Zac Sala
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2745–2765,Short summary
In mountainous regions around the world rockfalls pose a hazard to infrastructure and society. To aid in our understanding and management of these complex hazards, an inventory can be compiled. Three-dimensional remote sensing data can be used to locate the source zones of these events and generate models of areas which detached. We address the way in which the shape of a rockfall object can be measured. The shape of a rockfall has implications for forward modelling of potential runout zones.
Kwonmin Lee, Hye-Sil Kim, and Yong-Sang Choi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2241–2248,Short summary
This study examined the advances in the predictability of thunderstorms using geostationary satellite imageries. Our present results show that by using the latest geostationary satellite data (with a resolution of 2 km and 10 min), thunderstorms can be predicted 90–180 min ahead of their mature state. These data can capture the rapidly growing cloud tops before the cloud moisture falls as precipitation and enable prompt preparation and the mitigation of hazards.
Qingyun Zhang, Yongsheng Li, Jingfa Zhang, and Yi Luo
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2229–2240,Short summary
Before the opening of the railway, the deformation of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway was very small and considered stable. After opening, the overall stability of the railway section was good. The main deformation areas are concentrated in the areas where railway lines turn and geological disasters are concentrated. In order to ensure the safety of railway operation, it is necessary to carry out long-term time series observation along the Qinghai–Tibet Railway.
Xiao Huang, Cuizhen Wang, and Junyu Lu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2141–2155,Short summary
This study examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of nighttime satellite-derived human settlement in response to different levels of hurricane proneness in a period from 1992 to 2013. It confirms the
Snow Belt-to-Sun BeltUS population shift trend. The results also suggest that hurricane-exposed human settlement has grown in extent and area, as more hurricane exposure has experienced a larger increase rate in settlement intensity.
Maja Kucharczyk and Chris H. Hugenholtz
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2039–2051,Short summary
We performed pre-disaster 3-D mapping with a drone in downtown Victoria, BC, Canada. This was the first drone mapping mission over a Canadian city approved by Canada’s aviation authority. We were legally constrained to using a specific drone. The goal was to assess the quality of the 3-D map. Results indicate that the spatial accuracies achieved with this drone would allow for sub-meter building collapse detection, but the non-tilting camera was insufficient for mapping buildings in 3-D.
Reza Hassanzadeh, Mehdi Honarmand, Mahdieh Hossienjani Zadeh, and Farzin Naseri
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1989–2009,Short summary
This paper proposes a new model for evaluating local seismic amplification susceptibility by considering direct characteristics of influencing criteria and dealing with uncertainty of modelling through production of fuzzy membership functions and GIS. This model helps planners and decision makers easily produce local seismic amplification susceptibility to be incorporated in designing development plans of urban areas and to evaluate safety measures of existing infrastructure.
Salvador Gil-Guirado, Alfredo Pérez-Morales, and Francisco Lopez-Martinez
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1955–1971,Short summary
In this study the SMC-Flood database for the municipalities of the Mediterranean coast of mainland Spain is presented. This database has enabled the reconstruction of 3008 cases of flooding on a municipal scale between 1960 and 2015. The data analysis reveals a growing trend in the frequency and area affected by flood cases. The main novelty lies in the fact that we have detected a clear latitudinal gradient of growing intensity and severity of flood cases with a north–south direction.
Juan José Martín-Sotoca, Antonio Saa-Requejo, Rubén Moratiel, Nicolas Dalezios, Ioannis Faraslis, and Ana María Tarquis
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1685–1702,Short summary
Vegetation indices based on satellite images, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), have been used for damaged pasture insurance. The occurrence of damage is usually defined by NDVI thresholds mainly based on normal statistics. In this work a pasture area in Spain was delimited by MODIS images. A statistical analysis of NDVI was applied to search for alternative distributions. Results show that generalized extreme value distributions present a better fit than normal ones.
Hongyan Chen, Gengxing Zhao, Yuhuan Li, Danyang Wang, and Ying Ma
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1499–1508,Short summary
Using Landsat data, the inversion model of soil salt content (SSC) for different seasons was determined in the Kenli District in the Yellow River Delta region of China. The SSC exhibited a gradual increasing trend from the southwest to northeast. The SSC accumulated in spring, decreased in summer, increased in autumn and reached its peak at the the end of winter. The results can provide data for the control of soil salt hazards and utilization of saline–alkali soil.
Jérome Faillettaz, Martin Funk, Jan Beutel, and Andreas Vieli
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1399–1413,Short summary
We developed a new strategy for real-time early warning of gravity-driven slope failures (such as landslides, rockfalls, glacier break-off, etc.). This method enables us to investigate natural slope stability based on continuous monitoring and interpretation of seismic waves generated by the potential instability. Thanks to a pilot experiment, we detected typical patterns of precursory events prior to slide events, demonstrating the potential of this method for real-word applications.
Yue Li, Shi Qi, Bin Liang, Junming Ma, Baihan Cheng, Cong Ma, Yidan Qiu, and Qinyan Chen
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 757–774,Short summary
This study fully considers the characteristics of expressways in mountain areas. The catchment area is considered a prediction unit. The method of slope division is improved, and a method of improving the parameters in the model is proposed. Comparison and analysis with actual observation data show that the method of soil and water loss prediction adopted in this paper has less error and higher prediction accuracy than other models and can satisfy prediction requirements.
Huseyin Duman and Dogan Ugur Sanli
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 571–582,Short summary
Research has been done to assess the performance of relative positioning over long baseline lengths in determining the accuracy of site velocities from GPS campaign measurements. GPS campaign measurements were generated from the IGS data, and the results were compared with PPP-derived findings. A major outcome of this study is that relative positioning over long baseline lengths produces similar accuracies to PPP. A newly proposed refinement method also improves the available PPP accuracy.
Alvaro Hofflinger, Marcelo A. Somos-Valenzuela, and Arturo Vallejos-Romero
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 251–267,Short summary
In this work, we propose a novel methodology (ReTSVI) to integrate a social vulnerability index into flood hazard methodologies. ReTSVI combines a series of modules that are pieces of information that interact during an evacuation, such as evacuation rate curves, mobilization, inundation models, and social vulnerability indexes, to create an integrated map of the evacuation rate in a given location.
Paulo Victor N. Araújo, Venerando E. Amaro, Robert M. Silva, and Alexandre B. Lopes
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 237–250,Short summary
This paper aims to map flood hazard areas under the influence of the Uruguay River, Itaqui (southern Brazil), using a calibrated digital elevation model (DEM), historic river level data and geoprocessing techniques. Assessment of the areas that can potentially be flooded can help to reduce the negative impact of flood events by supporting the process of land-use planning in areas exposed to flood hazards.
Gonzalo Álvarez, Marco Quiroz, Jorge León, and Rodrigo Cienfuegos
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2027–2039,Short summary
Evacuation planning has been recognized as one of the best tools for safeguarding the population against tsunami hazards. In this work we develop a novel methodology to identify and classify urban micro-vulnerabilities that may difficult pedestrian evacuation processes resulting from problems in urban design or informal uses of the public space. The correct identification and correction of these issues could make the difference in saving lives when the available time for evacuation is short.
Johnny Cusicanqui, Norman Kerle, and Francesco Nex
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1583–1598,Short summary
Aerial multi-perspective images can be used for the effective assessment of post-disaster structural damage. Alternatively, rapidly available video data can be processed for the same purpose. However, video quality characteristics are different than those of images taken with still cameras. The use of video data in post-disaster damage assessment has not been demonstrated. Based on a comparative assessment, our findings support the application of video data in post-disaster damage assessment.
Denis Feurer, Olivier Planchon, Mohamed Amine El Maaoui, Abir Ben Slimane, Mohamed Rached Boussema, Marc Pierrot-Deseilligny, and Damien Raclot
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1567–1582,Short summary
We present a method for acquiring very-high-resolution images for 3-D mapping of gullies over kilometre-square areas using kites. Kites used in appropriate conditions can be an advantageous alternative to light unmanned aircraft when local regulations or weather conditions hamper their use. We proved that kites can acquire images, allowing for high-quality 3-D coverage of large areas. We automatically detected and mapped gullies from a decimetre kite DEM with 74 % accuracy of the length.
Masoud Masoudi, Parviz Jokar, and Biswajeet Pradhan
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1133–1140,Short summary
The paper attempts to create a new technique for assessing the current state of land degradation. Assessment of land degradation is difficult, because it includes a complex process. This assessment, using RS and GIS seems to be more realistic in finding the degree of degradation, because it is more related to its impact on land productivity. It is hoped that this attempt, which is the first attempt of its kind in the world, will be found applicable for other regions.
Benoit Deffontaines, Kuo-Jen Chang, Johann Champenois, Kuan-Chuan Lin, Chyi-Tyi Lee, Rou-Fei Chen, Jyr-Ching Hu, and Samuel Magalhaes
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 829–845,Short summary
To better settle the location and quantify the activity of the Hengchun Fault, we integrate UAS for geomorphologic data acquisitions, photograph and morphotectonic interpretation. Then PS-InSAR results, validated with GPS and leveling data, allow characterizing and quantifying the surface displacements. We confirm the geometry, characterization and quantification of the active sinistral transpressive Hengchun fault. The potential hazards are worthy of further investigation.
Kuo-Jen Chang, Yu-Chang Chan, Rou-Fei Chen, and Yu-Chung Hsieh
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 709–727,Short summary
Several remote sensing techniques, i.e., aerial photographs, drone images, and airborne lidar, were used in this study to decipher the morphological features of obscure landslides in volcanic regions and how the observed features may be used for understanding landslide occurrence, subsequent geomorphological evolution, and potential hazards. Two large-scale landslides were characterized and quantified in this study.
Ákos Török, Árpád Barsi, Gyula Bögöly, Tamás Lovas, Árpád Somogyi, and Péter Görög
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 583–597,Short summary
The present study demonstrates the application of drones and terrestrial laser scanner in stability assessment of steep, hardly accessible rock slopes that can endanger human lives. These technologies can be deployed very quickly, but data processing requires time. For reliable hazard evaluation, besides these techniques, engineering geological field work, laboratory tests of the mechanical properties of rocks and computer simulations are also necessary.
Riccardo Salvini, Giovanni Mastrorocco, Giuseppe Esposito, Silvia Di Bartolo, John Coggan, and Claudio Vanneschi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 287–302,Short summary
Remotely Piloted Aircraft System was used for the engineering geological investigation of a marble mine area in Italy. High resolution images were processed by using SfM techniques for obtaining an accurate and detailed three-dimensional model of the area. Geological and geometrical information was used for a preliminary stability analysis with focus on investigating the contribution of potential rock bridges of two large blocks that pose a potential hazard issue for the workforce.
Haifeng Huang, Jingjing Long, Wu Yi, Qinglin Yi, Guodong Zhang, and Bangjun Lei
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1961–1979,Short summary
Unmanned aerial vehicles are widely used in the emergency investigations of major natural hazards in a large area, but less commonly for single geo-hazards. Based on a number of successful practices in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China, a complete UAV-based emergency investigation method of single geo-hazards is concluded. It can not only greatly reduce the time, strength and risks, but can also provide high-accuracy, high-definition valuable information to support emergency responses.
Marco Cannioto, Antonino D'Alessandro, Giosuè Lo Bosco, Salvatore Scudero, and Giovanni Vitale
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1939–1946,Short summary
Immediately after an earthquake it is crucial to perform the fastest recognition of the damaged area to rescue as much people is possible and to assess and map the damage scenario. We apply the vehicle routing problem (VRP) to a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to find the shortest routes and the best take-off sites. The simulation, performed with different autonomy ranges, is carried out in the town of Acireale (Italy), where a real-time accelerometric network has been installed.
Hiroto Nagai, Manabu Watanabe, Naoya Tomii, Takeo Tadono, and Shinichi Suzuki
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1907–1921,Short summary
We demonstrated an assessment of the sediments caused by a catastrophic avalanche, induced by the main shock of the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal. A Japanese space-borne sensor, PALSAR-2, have a high potential for delineating the hazardous zone. Comparison of pre- and post-high-resolution topographic data estimates the avalanche-induced sediment volume as 5.51 × 106 m3. High-resolution satellite imagery revealed that it has multiple layers of sediment with different physical properties.
William Frodella, Teresa Salvatici, Veronica Pazzi, Stefano Morelli, and Riccardo Fanti
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1779–1793,Short summary
A local scale GB-InSAR system was implemented for mapping and monitoring slope landslide residual deformations and for early warning purposes in case of landslide reactivations, with the aim of assuring the safety of the valley inhabitants and the personnel involved in the post-event recovery phase. The here presented methodology could represent a useful contribution to a better understanding of landslide phenomena and decision making process during the post-emergency management activities.
Emanuele Intrieri, Federica Bardi, Riccardo Fanti, Giovanni Gigli, Francesco Fidolini, Nicola Casagli, Sandra Costanzo, Antonio Raffo, Giuseppe Di Massa, Giovanna Capparelli, and Pasquale Versace
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1713–1723,Short summary
Landslides are a threat not only to people but also to important infrastructure, like highways. Nowadays there are several monitoring systems that are able to detect slope displacements in order to give prompt alarms. On the other hand, such instruments produce a huge amount of information, which is often not totally used and which can also represent an issue for data storage and transmission. In this paper we explain how we dealt with the large quantity of data provided by one of these tools.
Atsuto Izumida, Shoichiro Uchiyama, and Toshihiko Sugai
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1505–1519,Short summary
Geomorphic impact of the 2015 flood of the Kinu River, which created a new crevasse splay on its floodplain, was quantified by volumetric calculations using three topographic data obtained by aerial laser scanning (ALS) and UAV photogrammetry. Topographic changes on the order of 0.1 m were detected, and the erosive character of the crevasse splay was revealed. The results suggest that a combination of ALS and UAV is useful for quantification of sudden topographic changes through disasters.
Aronica, G., Bates, P. D., and Horrit, M. S.: Assessing the uncertainty in distributed model predictions using observed binary pattern information within GLUE, Hydrol. Process., 16, 2001–2016, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.398, 2002.
Brouwer, T.: Twitter Flood Mapping Scripts: First Release [Data set], https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.165818, 2016.
Carter, W. N.: Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager's Handbook, Asian Development Bank, Mandaluyong City, Philippines, 2008.
Dullof, J. and Doucette, P.: The Sequential Generation of Gaussian Random Fields for Applications in the Geospatial Sciences, Int. J. Geo-Inf., 3, 817–852, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi3020817, 2014.
EA (Environment Agency): LIDAR Composite DTM – 2 m, available at: https://data.gov.uk/dataset/lidar-composite-dtm-2m1 (last access: 3 May 2016), 2014.
EA (Environment Agency): Recorded Flood Outlines, available at: https://data.gov.uk/dataset/recorded-flood-outlines1 (last access: 24 May 2016), 2015.
EA (Environment Agency): Environment Agency LIDAR data Technical Note, available at: http://www.geostore.com/environment-agency/docs/Environment_Agency_LIDAR_Open_Data_FAQ_v5.pdf (last access: 9 February 2017), 2016.
Earle, P. S., Bowden, D. C., and Guy, M.: Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world, Ann. Geophys-Italy., 54, 708–715, https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-5364, 2011.
Eilander, D., Trambauer, P., Wagemaker, J., and Van Loenen, A.: Havesting Social Media for Generation of Near Real-time Flood Maps, Procedia Engineering, 154, 176–183, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.07.441, 2016.
Fohringer, J., Dransch, D., Kreibich, H., and Schröter, K.: Social media as an information source for rapid flood inundation mapping, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2725–2738, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-2725-2015, 2015.
Giustarini, L., Hostache, R., Kavetski, D., Chini, M., Corato, G., Schlaffer, S., and Matgen, P.: Probabilistic Flood Mapping Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 54, 6958–6969, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2016.2592951, 2016.
Hahmann, S., Purves, R. S., and Burghardt, D.: Twitter location (sometimes) matters: Exploring the relationship between georeferenced tweet content and nearby feature classes, Journal of Spatial Information Science, 9, 1–36, https://doi.org/10.5311/JOSIS.2014.9.185, 2014.
Heuvelink, G. B. M., Brown, J. D., and Van Loon, E. E.: A probabilistic framework for representing and simulating uncertain environmental variables, Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 21, 497–513, https://doi.org/10.1080/13658810601063951, 2007.
Hodgson, M. E. and Bresnahan, P.: Accuracy of Airborne Lidar-Derived Elevation: Empirical Assessment and Error Budget, Photogramm. Eng. Rem. S., 70, 331–339, https://doi.org/10.14358/PERS.70.3.331, 2004.
Holderness, T. and Turpin, E.: From Social Media to GeoSocial Intelligence: Crowdsourcing Civic Co-management for Flood Response in Jakarta, Indonesia, in: Social Media for Government Services, edited by: Nepal, S., Paris, C., and Georgakopoulos, D., Springer International Publishing, Basel, Switzerland, 115–133, 2015.
Leon, X. J., Heuvelink, G. B. M., and Phinn, S. R.: Incorporating DEM Uncertainty in Coastal Inundation Mapping, PLOS ONE, 9, e108727, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108727, 2014.
Li, S., MacMillan, R. A., Lobb, D. A., McConkey, B. G., Moulin, A., and Fraser, W. R.: Lidar DEM error analyses and topographic depression identification in a hummocky landscape in the prairie region of Canada, Geomorphology, 129, 263–275, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2011.02.020, 2011.
Livne, E. and Svoray, T.: Components of uncertainty in primary production model: the study of DEM, classification and location error, Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 25, 473–488, https://doi.org/10.1080/13658816.2010.517752, 2011.
Mason, D. C., Davenport, I. J., Neal, J. C., Schumann, G. J.-P., and Bates, P. D.: Near Real-Time Flood Detection in Urban and Rural Areas Using High-Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar Images, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 50, 3041–3052, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2011.2178030, 2012.
McClanahan, B. and Gokhale, S. S.: Location Inference of Social Media Posts at Hyper-Local Scale, 3rd International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud, Rome, 25–26 August 2015, https://doi.org/10.1109/FiCloud.2015.71, 2015.
Met Office: Further rainfall and flooding across north of the UK, available at: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/interesting/december2015_further, last access: 27 December 2016.
Mudron, I., Podhoranyi, M., Cirbus, J., Devecka, B., and Bakay, L.: Modelling The Uncertainty of Slope Estimation from A Lidar-Derived Dem: A Case Study from A Large-Scale Area in The Czech Republic, GeoScience Engineering, 59, 25–39, https://doi.org/10.2478/gse-2014-0051, 2013.
Norbre, A. D., Cuartas, L. A., Hodnett, M., Renno, C. D., Rodrigues, G., Silveira, A., Waterloo, M., and Saleska, S.: Height Above the Nearest Drainage – a hydrologically relevant new terrain model, J. Hydrol., 404, 13–29, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.03.051, 2011.
Norbre, A. D., Cuartas, L. A., Momo, M. R., Severo, D. L., Pinheiro, A., and Norbre, C. A.: HAND contour: a new proxy predictor of inundation extent, Hydrol. Process., 30, 320–333, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.10581, 2016.
Pidd, H.: A year after the deluge, York is still counting the cost, available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/dec/26/a-year-after-the-deluge-york-is-still-counting-the-cost (last access: 2 February 2017), 2016.
Raaflaub, L. D. and Collins, M. J.: The effect of error in gridded digital elevation models on the estimation of topographic parameters, Environ. Modell. Softw., 21, 710–732, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2005.02.003, 2006.
Rennó, C. D., Nobre, A. D., Cuartas, L. A., Soares, J. V., Hodnett, M. G., Tomasella J., and Waterloo, M. J.: HAND, a new terrain descriptor using SRTM-DEM: Mapping terra-firme rainforest environments in Amazonia, Remote Sens. Environ., 112, 3469–3481, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2008.03.018, 2008.
Schnebele, E., Cervone, G., Kumar, S., and Waters, N.: Real Time Estimation of the Calgary Floods Using Limited Remote Sensing Data, Water, 6, 381–398, https://doi.org/10.3390/w6020381, 2014.
Schumann, G., Bates, P. D., Horrit, M. S., Matgen, P., and Pappenberger, F.: Progress in Integration of Remote Sensing-derived Flood Extent and Stage Data and Hydraulic Models, Rev. Geophys., 47, RG4001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008RG000274, 2009.
Smith, L., Liang, Q., James, P., and Lin, W.: Assessing the utility of social media as a data source for flood risk management using a real-time modelling framework, Journal of Flood Risk Management, https://doi.org/10.1111/jfr3.12154, 2015.
Stone, L. D., Keller, C. M., Kratzke, T. M., and Strumpfer, J. P.: Search for the Wreckage of Air France Flight AF 447, Stat. Sci., 29, 69–80, https://doi.org/10.1214/13-STS420, 2014.
Sun, D., Li, S., Zheng, W., Croitoru, A., Stefanidis, A., and Goldberg, M.: Mapping floods due to Hurricane Sandy using NPP VIIRS and ATMS data and geotagged Flickr imagery, International Journal of Digital Earth, 9, 427–441, https://doi.org/10.1080/17538947.2015.1040474, 2015.
UN: The human cost of weather related disasters 1995–2015, United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland, 30 pp., available at: http://www.unisdr.org/files/46796_cop21weatherdisastersreport2015.pdf (last access: 30 August 2016), 2015.
Werner, M. G. F.: Impact of Grid Size in GIS Based Flood Extent Mapping Using a 1D Flow Model, Phys. Chem. Earth Pt. B, 26, 517–522, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1464-1909(01)00043-0, 2001.
Wilks, D. S.: Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 2006.
The increasing number and severity of floods, driven by e.g. urbanization, subsidence and climate change, create a growing need for accurate and timely flood maps. At the same time social media is a source of much real-time data that is still largely untapped in flood disaster management. This study illustrates that inherently uncertain data from social media can be used to derive information about flooding.
The increasing number and severity of floods, driven by e.g. urbanization, subsidence and...