Articles | Volume 21, issue 4
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1279–1296, 2021

Special issue: Advances in extreme value analysis and application to natural...

Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1279–1296, 2021

Research article 26 Apr 2021

Research article | 26 Apr 2021

Non-stationary analysis of water level extremes in Latvian waters, Baltic Sea, during 1961–2018

Nadezhda Kudryavtseva et al.

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Cited articles

Andersson, H. C.: Influence of long-term regional and large-scale atmospheric circulation on the Baltic Sea level, Tellus A, 54, 76–88,, 2002. 
Astok, V., Otsmann, M., and Suursaar, Ü.: Water exchange as the main physical process in semi-enclosed marine systems: the Gulf of Riga case, Hydrobiologia, 393, 11–18,, 1999. 
Averkiev, A. S. and Klevannyy, K. A.: A case study of the impact of cyclonic trajectories on sea-level extremes in the Gulf of Finland, Cont. Shelf Res., 30, 707–714,, 2010. 
Bardet, L., Duluc, C.-M., Rebour, V., and L'Her, J.: Regional frequency analysis of extreme storm surges along the French coast, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1627–1639,, 2011. 
Brönnimann, S.: Impact of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on European climate, Rev. Geophys., 45, RG3003,, 2007. 
Short summary
We demonstrate a finding of a very sudden change in the nature of water level extremes in the Gulf of Riga which coincides with weakening of correlation with North Atlantic Oscillation. The shape of the distribution is variable with time; it abruptly changed for several years and was suddenly restored. If similar sudden changes happen in other places in the world, not taking into account the non-stationarity can lead to significant underestimation of future risks from extreme-water-level events.
Final-revised paper