Articles | Volume 14, issue 9
Research article 23 Sep 2014
Research article | 23 Sep 2014
Estimating velocity from noisy GPS data for investigating the temporal variability of slope movements
V. Wirz et al.
V. Wirz, S. Gruber, R. S. Purves, J. Beutel, I. Gärtner-Roer, S. Gubler, and A. Vieli
Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 103–123,
Rupesh Subedi, Steven V. Kokelj, and Stephan Gruber
The Cryosphere, 14, 4341–4364,Short summary
Permafrost beneath tundra near Lac de Gras (Northwest Territories, Canada) contains more ice and less organic carbon than shown in global compilations. Excess-ice content of 20–60 %, likely remnant Laurentide basal ice, is found in upland till. This study is based on 24 boreholes up to 10 m deep. Findings highlight geology and glacial legacy as determinants of a mosaic of permafrost characteristics with potential for thaw subsidence up to several metres in some locations.
Niccolò Tubini, Stephan Gruber, and Riccardo Rigon
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
We present a new method to compute temperature changes with melting and freezing, a fundamental challenge in cryosphere research, extremely efficiently and with guaranteed correctness of the energy balance for any time step size. This is a key feature since the integration time step can then be chosen according to the timescale of the processes to study, from seconds to days.
Bin Cao, Stephan Gruber, Donghai Zheng, and Xin Li
The Cryosphere, 14, 2581–2595,Short summary
This study reports that ERA5-Land (ERA5L) soil temperature bias in permafrost regions correlates with the bias in air temperature and with maximum snow height. While global reanalyses are important drivers for permafrost study, ERA5L soil data are not well suited for directly informing permafrost research decision making due to their warm bias in winter. To address this, future soil temperature products in reanalyses will require permafrost-specific alterations to their land surface models.
The Cryosphere, 14, 1437–1447,Short summary
A simple method to record heave and subsidence of the land surface at specific field locations is described. Hourly observations from three sites, over two winters and one summer, are analyzed and discussed. The data are rich in features that point to the influence of freezing and thawing and of wetting and drying of the soil. This type of observation may offer new insight into the processes of heat and mass transfer in soil and help to monitor climate change impacts.
John Mohd Wani, Renoj J. Thayyen, Chandra Shekhar Prasad Ojha, and Stephan Gruber
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for TCShort summary
This study focus on the Surface Energy Balance (SEB) of cold arid permafrost environment of Ladakh Himalaya. The SEB partitioning show Rn was converted as 47% into H, 44% into LE, 1% into G and 7% for melting of seasonal snow. Low Relative humidity (43%) of this region could be playing a critical role in SEB regime and permafrost processes. Key difference of surface energy balance characteristics was observed between low and high snow years.
Bin Cao, Xiaojing Quan, Nicholas Brown, Emilie Stewart-Jones, and Stephan Gruber
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4661–4679,Short summary
GlobSim is a tool for simulating land-surface processes and phenomena at point locations globally, even where no site-specific meteorological observations exist. This is important because simulation can add insight to the analysis of observations or help in anticipating climate-change impacts and because site-specific simulation can help in model evaluation.
Joe R. Melton, Diana L. Verseghy, Reinel Sospedra-Alfonso, and Stephan Gruber
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4443–4467,Short summary
Soils in cold regions store large amounts of carbon that could be released to the atmosphere if the soils thaw. To best simulate these soils, we explored different configurations and parameterizations of the CLASS-CTEM model and compared to observations. The revised model with a deeper soil column, new soil depth dataset, and inclusion of moss simulated greatly improved annual thaw depths and ground temperatures. We estimate subgrid-scale features limit further improvements against observations.
Samuel Weber, Jan Beutel, Reto Da Forno, Alain Geiger, Stephan Gruber, Tonio Gsell, Andreas Hasler, Matthias Keller, Roman Lim, Philippe Limpach, Matthias Meyer, Igor Talzi, Lothar Thiele, Christian Tschudin, Andreas Vieli, Daniel Vonder Mühll, and Mustafa Yücel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1203–1237,Short summary
In this paper, we describe a unique 10-year or more data record obtained from in situ measurements in steep bedrock permafrost in an Alpine environment on the Matterhorn Hörnligrat, Zermatt, Switzerland, at 3500 m a.s.l. By documenting and sharing these data in this form, we contribute to facilitating future research based on them, e.g., in the area of analysis methodology, comparative studies, assessment of change in the environment, natural hazard warning and the development of process models.
Natalia Andrienko, Gennady Andrienko, Siming Chen, Dirk Burghardt, Alexander Dunkel, and Ross Purves
Abstr. Int. Cartogr. Assoc., 1, 10,
Frank Techel, Christoph Mitterer, Elisabetta Ceaglio, Cécile Coléou, Samuel Morin, Francesca Rastelli, and Ross S. Purves
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2697–2716,Short summary
In 1993, the European Avalanche Warning Services agreed upon a common danger scale to describe the regional avalanche hazard: the European Avalanche Danger Scale. Using published avalanche forecasts, we explored whether forecasters use the scale consistently. We noted differences in the use of the danger levels, some of which could be linked to the size of the regions a regional danger level is issued for. We recommend further harmonizing the avalanche forecast products in the Alps.
Muriel Côte, Flurina Wartmann, and Ross Purves
Geogr. Helv., 73, 253–260,
Bin Cao, Stephan Gruber, and Tingjun Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2905–2923,Short summary
To derive the air temperature in mountain enviroments, we propose a new downscaling method with a spatially variable magnitude of surface effects. Our findings suggest that the difference between near-surface air temperature and upper-air temerpature is a good proxy of surface effects. It can be used to improve downscaling results, especially in valleys with strong surface effects and cold air pooling during winter.
Stephan Gruber, Renate Fleiner, Emilie Guegan, Prajjwal Panday, Marc-Olivier Schmid, Dorothea Stumm, Philippus Wester, Yinsheng Zhang, and Lin Zhao
The Cryosphere, 11, 81–99,Short summary
We review what can be inferred about permafrost in the mountains of the Hindu Kush Himalaya region. This is important because the area of permafrost exceeds that of glaciers in this region. Climate change will produce diverse permafrost-related impacts on vegetation, water quality, geohazards, and livelihoods. To mitigate this, a better understanding of high-elevation permafrost in subtropical latitudes as well as the pathways connecting environmental change and human livelihoods, is needed.
Jochen Veitinger, Ross Stuart Purves, and Betty Sovilla
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 2211–2225,Short summary
Avalanche hazard assessment requires a very precise estimation of the potential starting zone, which nowadays still depends, to a large extent, on expert judgement of avalanches. Therefore, a new algorithm for automated identification of potential avalanche release areas was developed. Potential avalanche release areas can be defined for varying snow accumulation scenarios, improving the automated estimation of release areas, in particular for frequent avalanches.
V. Wirz, S. Gruber, R. S. Purves, J. Beutel, I. Gärtner-Roer, S. Gubler, and A. Vieli
Earth Surf. Dynam., 4, 103–123,
M.-O. Schmid, P. Baral, S. Gruber, S. Shahi, T. Shrestha, D. Stumm, and P. Wester
The Cryosphere, 9, 2089–2099,Short summary
The extent and distribution of permafrost in the mountainous parts of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region are largely unknown. This article provides a first-order assessment of the two available permafrost maps in the HKH region based on the mapping of rock glaciers in Google Earth. The Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground Ice Conditions does not reproduce mapped conditions in the HKH region adequately, whereas the Global Permafrost Zonation Index does so with more success.
A. Hasler, M. Geertsema, V. Foord, S. Gruber, and J. Noetzli
The Cryosphere, 9, 1025–1038,Short summary
In this paper we describe surface and thermal offsets derived from distributed measurements at seven field sites in British Columbia. Key findings are i) a small variation of the surface offsets between surface types; ii) small thermal offsets at all sites; iii) a clear influence of the micro-topography due to snow cover effects; iv) a north--south difference of the surface offset of 4°C in vertical bedrock and of 1.5–-3°C on open gentle slopes; v) only small macroclimatic differences.
J. Fiddes, S. Endrizzi, and S. Gruber
The Cryosphere, 9, 411–426,Short summary
This paper demonstrates a new land surface modelling approach that uses globally available data sets to generate high-resolution simulation results of land surface processes. We successfully simulate a highly resolution-dependent variable, ground surface temperatures, over the entire Swiss Alps at high resolution. We use a large evaluation data set to test the model. We suggest that this scheme represents a useful step in application of numerical models over large areas in heterogeneous terrain.
S. Endrizzi, S. Gruber, M. Dall'Amico, and R. Rigon
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2831–2857,Short summary
GEOtop is a fine scale grid-based simulator that represents the heat and water budgets at and below the soil surface, reproduces the highly non-linear interactions between the water and energy balance during soil freezing and thawing and simulates snow cover. The core components of GEOtop 2.0. are described. Based on a synthetic simulation, it is shown that the interaction of processes represented in GEOtop 2.0. can result in phenomena that are relevant for applications involving frozen soils.
J. Veitinger, B. Sovilla, and R. S. Purves
The Cryosphere, 8, 547–569,
J. Fiddes and S. Gruber
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 387–405,
S. Gubler, S. Endrizzi, S. Gruber, and R. S. Purves
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1319–1336,
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Diana Contreras, Alondra Chamorro, and Sean Wilkinson
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The socio-economic condition of the population determines their vulnerability to earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, landslides, soil erosion and land degradation. This condition is estimated mainly from population censuses. The lack to access to basic services, proximity to hazard zones, poverty and population density highly influence the vulnerability of communities. Mapping the location of this vulnerable population makes it possible to prevent and mitigate their risk.
Corey M. Scheip and Karl W. Wegmann
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Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
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Richard Styron, Julio García-Pelaez, and Marco Pagani
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 831–857,Short summary
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María del Pilar Jiménez-Donaire, Ana Tarquis, and Juan Vicente Giráldez
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Quancai Xie, Qiang Ma, Jingfa Zhang, and Haiying Yu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2827–2839,Short summary
This paper evaluates a new method for modeling the site amplification factor. Through implementing this method and making simulations for different cases, we find that this method shows better performance than the previous method and JMA report. We better understand the advantages and disadvantages of this method, although there are some problems that need to be considered carefully and solved; it shows good potential to be used in future earthquake early warning systems.
David A. Bonneau, D. Jean Hutchinson, Paul-Mark DiFrancesco, Melanie Coombs, and Zac Sala
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2745–2765,Short summary
In mountainous regions around the world rockfalls pose a hazard to infrastructure and society. To aid in our understanding and management of these complex hazards, an inventory can be compiled. Three-dimensional remote sensing data can be used to locate the source zones of these events and generate models of areas which detached. We address the way in which the shape of a rockfall object can be measured. The shape of a rockfall has implications for forward modelling of potential runout zones.
Kwonmin Lee, Hye-Sil Kim, and Yong-Sang Choi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2241–2248,Short summary
This study examined the advances in the predictability of thunderstorms using geostationary satellite imageries. Our present results show that by using the latest geostationary satellite data (with a resolution of 2 km and 10 min), thunderstorms can be predicted 90–180 min ahead of their mature state. These data can capture the rapidly growing cloud tops before the cloud moisture falls as precipitation and enable prompt preparation and the mitigation of hazards.
Qingyun Zhang, Yongsheng Li, Jingfa Zhang, and Yi Luo
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2229–2240,Short summary
Before the opening of the railway, the deformation of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway was very small and considered stable. After opening, the overall stability of the railway section was good. The main deformation areas are concentrated in the areas where railway lines turn and geological disasters are concentrated. In order to ensure the safety of railway operation, it is necessary to carry out long-term time series observation along the Qinghai–Tibet Railway.
Xiao Huang, Cuizhen Wang, and Junyu Lu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2141–2155,Short summary
This study examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of nighttime satellite-derived human settlement in response to different levels of hurricane proneness in a period from 1992 to 2013. It confirms the
Snow Belt-to-Sun BeltUS population shift trend. The results also suggest that hurricane-exposed human settlement has grown in extent and area, as more hurricane exposure has experienced a larger increase rate in settlement intensity.
Maja Kucharczyk and Chris H. Hugenholtz
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2039–2051,Short summary
We performed pre-disaster 3-D mapping with a drone in downtown Victoria, BC, Canada. This was the first drone mapping mission over a Canadian city approved by Canada’s aviation authority. We were legally constrained to using a specific drone. The goal was to assess the quality of the 3-D map. Results indicate that the spatial accuracies achieved with this drone would allow for sub-meter building collapse detection, but the non-tilting camera was insufficient for mapping buildings in 3-D.
Reza Hassanzadeh, Mehdi Honarmand, Mahdieh Hossienjani Zadeh, and Farzin Naseri
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1989–2009,Short summary
This paper proposes a new model for evaluating local seismic amplification susceptibility by considering direct characteristics of influencing criteria and dealing with uncertainty of modelling through production of fuzzy membership functions and GIS. This model helps planners and decision makers easily produce local seismic amplification susceptibility to be incorporated in designing development plans of urban areas and to evaluate safety measures of existing infrastructure.
Salvador Gil-Guirado, Alfredo Pérez-Morales, and Francisco Lopez-Martinez
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1955–1971,Short summary
In this study the SMC-Flood database for the municipalities of the Mediterranean coast of mainland Spain is presented. This database has enabled the reconstruction of 3008 cases of flooding on a municipal scale between 1960 and 2015. The data analysis reveals a growing trend in the frequency and area affected by flood cases. The main novelty lies in the fact that we have detected a clear latitudinal gradient of growing intensity and severity of flood cases with a north–south direction.
Juan José Martín-Sotoca, Antonio Saa-Requejo, Rubén Moratiel, Nicolas Dalezios, Ioannis Faraslis, and Ana María Tarquis
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1685–1702,Short summary
Vegetation indices based on satellite images, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), have been used for damaged pasture insurance. The occurrence of damage is usually defined by NDVI thresholds mainly based on normal statistics. In this work a pasture area in Spain was delimited by MODIS images. A statistical analysis of NDVI was applied to search for alternative distributions. Results show that generalized extreme value distributions present a better fit than normal ones.
Hongyan Chen, Gengxing Zhao, Yuhuan Li, Danyang Wang, and Ying Ma
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1499–1508,Short summary
Using Landsat data, the inversion model of soil salt content (SSC) for different seasons was determined in the Kenli District in the Yellow River Delta region of China. The SSC exhibited a gradual increasing trend from the southwest to northeast. The SSC accumulated in spring, decreased in summer, increased in autumn and reached its peak at the the end of winter. The results can provide data for the control of soil salt hazards and utilization of saline–alkali soil.
Jérome Faillettaz, Martin Funk, Jan Beutel, and Andreas Vieli
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1399–1413,Short summary
We developed a new strategy for real-time early warning of gravity-driven slope failures (such as landslides, rockfalls, glacier break-off, etc.). This method enables us to investigate natural slope stability based on continuous monitoring and interpretation of seismic waves generated by the potential instability. Thanks to a pilot experiment, we detected typical patterns of precursory events prior to slide events, demonstrating the potential of this method for real-word applications.
Yue Li, Shi Qi, Bin Liang, Junming Ma, Baihan Cheng, Cong Ma, Yidan Qiu, and Qinyan Chen
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 757–774,Short summary
This study fully considers the characteristics of expressways in mountain areas. The catchment area is considered a prediction unit. The method of slope division is improved, and a method of improving the parameters in the model is proposed. Comparison and analysis with actual observation data show that the method of soil and water loss prediction adopted in this paper has less error and higher prediction accuracy than other models and can satisfy prediction requirements.
Huseyin Duman and Dogan Ugur Sanli
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 571–582,Short summary
Research has been done to assess the performance of relative positioning over long baseline lengths in determining the accuracy of site velocities from GPS campaign measurements. GPS campaign measurements were generated from the IGS data, and the results were compared with PPP-derived findings. A major outcome of this study is that relative positioning over long baseline lengths produces similar accuracies to PPP. A newly proposed refinement method also improves the available PPP accuracy.
Alvaro Hofflinger, Marcelo A. Somos-Valenzuela, and Arturo Vallejos-Romero
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 251–267,Short summary
In this work, we propose a novel methodology (ReTSVI) to integrate a social vulnerability index into flood hazard methodologies. ReTSVI combines a series of modules that are pieces of information that interact during an evacuation, such as evacuation rate curves, mobilization, inundation models, and social vulnerability indexes, to create an integrated map of the evacuation rate in a given location.
Paulo Victor N. Araújo, Venerando E. Amaro, Robert M. Silva, and Alexandre B. Lopes
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 237–250,Short summary
This paper aims to map flood hazard areas under the influence of the Uruguay River, Itaqui (southern Brazil), using a calibrated digital elevation model (DEM), historic river level data and geoprocessing techniques. Assessment of the areas that can potentially be flooded can help to reduce the negative impact of flood events by supporting the process of land-use planning in areas exposed to flood hazards.
Gonzalo Álvarez, Marco Quiroz, Jorge León, and Rodrigo Cienfuegos
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2027–2039,Short summary
Evacuation planning has been recognized as one of the best tools for safeguarding the population against tsunami hazards. In this work we develop a novel methodology to identify and classify urban micro-vulnerabilities that may difficult pedestrian evacuation processes resulting from problems in urban design or informal uses of the public space. The correct identification and correction of these issues could make the difference in saving lives when the available time for evacuation is short.
Johnny Cusicanqui, Norman Kerle, and Francesco Nex
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1583–1598,Short summary
Aerial multi-perspective images can be used for the effective assessment of post-disaster structural damage. Alternatively, rapidly available video data can be processed for the same purpose. However, video quality characteristics are different than those of images taken with still cameras. The use of video data in post-disaster damage assessment has not been demonstrated. Based on a comparative assessment, our findings support the application of video data in post-disaster damage assessment.
Denis Feurer, Olivier Planchon, Mohamed Amine El Maaoui, Abir Ben Slimane, Mohamed Rached Boussema, Marc Pierrot-Deseilligny, and Damien Raclot
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1567–1582,Short summary
We present a method for acquiring very-high-resolution images for 3-D mapping of gullies over kilometre-square areas using kites. Kites used in appropriate conditions can be an advantageous alternative to light unmanned aircraft when local regulations or weather conditions hamper their use. We proved that kites can acquire images, allowing for high-quality 3-D coverage of large areas. We automatically detected and mapped gullies from a decimetre kite DEM with 74 % accuracy of the length.
Masoud Masoudi, Parviz Jokar, and Biswajeet Pradhan
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1133–1140,Short summary
The paper attempts to create a new technique for assessing the current state of land degradation. Assessment of land degradation is difficult, because it includes a complex process. This assessment, using RS and GIS seems to be more realistic in finding the degree of degradation, because it is more related to its impact on land productivity. It is hoped that this attempt, which is the first attempt of its kind in the world, will be found applicable for other regions.
Benoit Deffontaines, Kuo-Jen Chang, Johann Champenois, Kuan-Chuan Lin, Chyi-Tyi Lee, Rou-Fei Chen, Jyr-Ching Hu, and Samuel Magalhaes
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 829–845,Short summary
To better settle the location and quantify the activity of the Hengchun Fault, we integrate UAS for geomorphologic data acquisitions, photograph and morphotectonic interpretation. Then PS-InSAR results, validated with GPS and leveling data, allow characterizing and quantifying the surface displacements. We confirm the geometry, characterization and quantification of the active sinistral transpressive Hengchun fault. The potential hazards are worthy of further investigation.
Kuo-Jen Chang, Yu-Chang Chan, Rou-Fei Chen, and Yu-Chung Hsieh
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 709–727,Short summary
Several remote sensing techniques, i.e., aerial photographs, drone images, and airborne lidar, were used in this study to decipher the morphological features of obscure landslides in volcanic regions and how the observed features may be used for understanding landslide occurrence, subsequent geomorphological evolution, and potential hazards. Two large-scale landslides were characterized and quantified in this study.
Ákos Török, Árpád Barsi, Gyula Bögöly, Tamás Lovas, Árpád Somogyi, and Péter Görög
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 583–597,Short summary
The present study demonstrates the application of drones and terrestrial laser scanner in stability assessment of steep, hardly accessible rock slopes that can endanger human lives. These technologies can be deployed very quickly, but data processing requires time. For reliable hazard evaluation, besides these techniques, engineering geological field work, laboratory tests of the mechanical properties of rocks and computer simulations are also necessary.
Riccardo Salvini, Giovanni Mastrorocco, Giuseppe Esposito, Silvia Di Bartolo, John Coggan, and Claudio Vanneschi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 287–302,Short summary
Remotely Piloted Aircraft System was used for the engineering geological investigation of a marble mine area in Italy. High resolution images were processed by using SfM techniques for obtaining an accurate and detailed three-dimensional model of the area. Geological and geometrical information was used for a preliminary stability analysis with focus on investigating the contribution of potential rock bridges of two large blocks that pose a potential hazard issue for the workforce.
Haifeng Huang, Jingjing Long, Wu Yi, Qinglin Yi, Guodong Zhang, and Bangjun Lei
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1961–1979,Short summary
Unmanned aerial vehicles are widely used in the emergency investigations of major natural hazards in a large area, but less commonly for single geo-hazards. Based on a number of successful practices in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China, a complete UAV-based emergency investigation method of single geo-hazards is concluded. It can not only greatly reduce the time, strength and risks, but can also provide high-accuracy, high-definition valuable information to support emergency responses.
Marco Cannioto, Antonino D'Alessandro, Giosuè Lo Bosco, Salvatore Scudero, and Giovanni Vitale
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1939–1946,Short summary
Immediately after an earthquake it is crucial to perform the fastest recognition of the damaged area to rescue as much people is possible and to assess and map the damage scenario. We apply the vehicle routing problem (VRP) to a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to find the shortest routes and the best take-off sites. The simulation, performed with different autonomy ranges, is carried out in the town of Acireale (Italy), where a real-time accelerometric network has been installed.
Hiroto Nagai, Manabu Watanabe, Naoya Tomii, Takeo Tadono, and Shinichi Suzuki
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1907–1921,Short summary
We demonstrated an assessment of the sediments caused by a catastrophic avalanche, induced by the main shock of the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal. A Japanese space-borne sensor, PALSAR-2, have a high potential for delineating the hazardous zone. Comparison of pre- and post-high-resolution topographic data estimates the avalanche-induced sediment volume as 5.51 × 106 m3. High-resolution satellite imagery revealed that it has multiple layers of sediment with different physical properties.
William Frodella, Teresa Salvatici, Veronica Pazzi, Stefano Morelli, and Riccardo Fanti
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1779–1793,Short summary
A local scale GB-InSAR system was implemented for mapping and monitoring slope landslide residual deformations and for early warning purposes in case of landslide reactivations, with the aim of assuring the safety of the valley inhabitants and the personnel involved in the post-event recovery phase. The here presented methodology could represent a useful contribution to a better understanding of landslide phenomena and decision making process during the post-emergency management activities.
Emanuele Intrieri, Federica Bardi, Riccardo Fanti, Giovanni Gigli, Francesco Fidolini, Nicola Casagli, Sandra Costanzo, Antonio Raffo, Giuseppe Di Massa, Giovanna Capparelli, and Pasquale Versace
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1713–1723,Short summary
Landslides are a threat not only to people but also to important infrastructure, like highways. Nowadays there are several monitoring systems that are able to detect slope displacements in order to give prompt alarms. On the other hand, such instruments produce a huge amount of information, which is often not totally used and which can also represent an issue for data storage and transmission. In this paper we explain how we dealt with the large quantity of data provided by one of these tools.
Atsuto Izumida, Shoichiro Uchiyama, and Toshihiko Sugai
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1505–1519,Short summary
Geomorphic impact of the 2015 flood of the Kinu River, which created a new crevasse splay on its floodplain, was quantified by volumetric calculations using three topographic data obtained by aerial laser scanning (ALS) and UAV photogrammetry. Topographic changes on the order of 0.1 m were detected, and the erosive character of the crevasse splay was revealed. The results suggest that a combination of ALS and UAV is useful for quantification of sudden topographic changes through disasters.
Amin Beiranvand Pour and Mazlan Hashim
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1285–1303,Short summary
L-band SAR remote sensing data are used for identification of high potential risk and susceptible zones for natural hazards of geological origin in tropical environments. Results of this investigation have great potential in terms of a solution to flood disaster management in tropical environments by providing important information to assess the natural hazards of geological origin.
Luisa Griesbaum, Sabrina Marx, and Bernhard Höfle
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1191–1201,Short summary
This study provides a new method for flood documentation based on user-generated flood images. We demonstrate how flood elevation and building inundation depth can be derived from photographs by means of 3-D reconstruction of the scene. With an accuracy of 0.13 m ± 0.10 m, the derived building inundation depth can be used to facilitate damage assessment.
Gianni Niccolini, Amedeo Manuello, Elena Marchis, and Alberto Carpinteri
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1025–1032,Short summary
An architectural element of the Royal Castle of Racconigi (northwestern Italy, 17th century) is subjected to nondestructive testing for structural integrity evaluation. It is found that the so-called acoustic emissions – high-frequency vibrations emitted as tiny cracks that develop inside stone and concrete – correlate with those of small nearby earthquakes, suggesting new approaches to monitoring gradual damage accumulation inflicted by such earthquakes on architectural heritage and monuments.
Tom Brouwer, Dirk Eilander, Arnejan van Loenen, Martijn J. Booij, Kathelijne M. Wijnberg, Jan S. Verkade, and Jurjen Wagemaker
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 735–747,Short summary
The increasing number and severity of floods, driven by e.g. urbanization, subsidence and climate change, create a growing need for accurate and timely flood maps. At the same time social media is a source of much real-time data that is still largely untapped in flood disaster management. This study illustrates that inherently uncertain data from social media can be used to derive information about flooding.
Andreas Kääb, Bas Altena, and Joseph Mascaro
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 627–639,Short summary
We evaluate for the first time a new class of optical satellite images for measuring Earth surface displacements due to earthquakes – images from cubesats. The PlanetScope cubesats used in this study are 10 cm × 10 cm × 30 cm small and standardized satellites. Around 120 of these cubesats orbit around Earth and are about to provide daily 2–4 m resolution images of the entire land surface of the Earth.
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