Articles | Volume 20, issue 12
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3593–3609, 2020
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3593–3609, 2020

Research article 23 Dec 2020

Research article | 23 Dec 2020

Wave height return periods from combined measurement–model data: a Baltic Sea case study

Jan-Victor Björkqvist et al.

Related authors

Meteotsunami occurrence in the Gulf of Finland over the past century
Havu Pellikka, Terhi K. Laurila, Hanna Boman, Anu Karjalainen, Jan-Victor Björkqvist, and Kimmo K. Kahma
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2535–2546,,, 2020
Short summary
The wave spectrum in archipelagos
Jan-Victor Björkqvist, Heidi Pettersson, and Kimmo K. Kahma
Ocean Sci., 15, 1469–1487,,, 2019
Short summary
Combining probability distributions of sea level variations and wave run-up to evaluate coastal flooding risks
Ulpu Leijala, Jan-Victor Björkqvist, Milla M. Johansson, Havu Pellikka, Lauri Laakso, and Kimmo K. Kahma
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2785–2799,,, 2018
Short summary
Brief communication: Characteristic properties of extreme wave events observed in the northern Baltic Proper, Baltic Sea
Jan-Victor Björkqvist, Laura Tuomi, Niko Tollman, Antti Kangas, Heidi Pettersson, Riikka Marjamaa, Hannu Jokinen, and Carl Fortelius
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1653–1658,,, 2017
Short summary
Removing low-frequency artefacts from Datawell DWR-G4 wave buoy measurements
J.-V. Björkqvist, H. Pettersson, L. Laakso, K. K. Kahma, H. Jokinen, and P. Kosloff
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 17–25,,, 2016
Short summary

Related subject area

Sea, Ocean and Coastal Hazards
Influence of hydrometeorological hazards and sea coast morphodynamics on development of Cephalanthero rubrae-Fagetum (Wolin island, the southern Baltic Sea)
Jacek Tylkowski, Marcin Winowski, Marcin Hojan, Paweł Czyryca, and Mariusz Samołyk
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 363–374,,, 2021
Short summary
Trivariate copula to design coastal structures
Olivier Orcel, Philippe Sergent, and François Ropert
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 239–260,,, 2021
Short summary
Beachgoers' ability to identify rip currents at a beach in situ
Sebastian J. Pitman, Katie Thompson, Deirdre E. Hart, Kevin Moran, Shari L. Gallop, Robert W. Brander, and Adam Wooler
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 115–128,,, 2021
Short summary
Modeling dependence and coincidence of storm surges and high tide: methodology, discussion and recommendations based on a simplified case study in Le Havre (France)
Amine Ben Daoued, Yasser Hamdi, Nassima Mouhous-Voyneau, and Philippe Sergent
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3387–3398,,, 2020
Short summary
Laboratory study of non-linear wave–wave interactions of extreme focused waves in the nearshore zone
Iskander Abroug, Nizar Abcha, Armelle Jarno, and François Marin
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3279–3291,,, 2020
Short summary

Cited articles

Aarnes, O. J., Breivik, Ø., and Reistad, M.: Wave Extremes in the northeast Atlantic, J. Climate, 25, 1529–1543,, 2012. a, b, c, d, e
Berg, P., Döscher, R., and Koenigk, T.: Impacts of using spectral nudging on regional climate model RCA4 simulations of the Arctic, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 849–859,, 2013. a
Bidlot, J. R., Holmes, D. J., Wittmann, P. A., Lalbeharry, R., and Chen, H. S.:Intercomparison of the performance of operational ocean wave forecasting systems with buoy data, Weather Forecast., 17, 287–310,<0287:IOTPOO>2.0.CO;2, 2002. a, b
Bitner-Gregersen, E. M. and Magnusson, A. K.: Effect of intrinsic and sampling variability on wave parameters and wave statistics, Ocean Dynam., 64, 1643–1655,, 2014. a
Björkqvist, J.-V.: Waves in Archipelagos, PhD thesis, FMI Contributions 159, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, available at:, last access: 14 December 2020. a
Short summary
Wave observations have a fundamental uncertainty due to the randomness of the sea state. Such scatter is absent in model data, and we tried two methods to best account for this difference when combining measured and modelled wave heights. The results were used to estimate how rare a 2019 storm in the Bothnian Sea was. Both methods were found to have strengths and weaknesses, but our best estimate was that, in the current climate, such a storm might on average repeat about once a century.
Final-revised paper