Articles | Volume 19, issue 10
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2183–2205, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-19-2183-2019
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2183–2205, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-19-2183-2019

Research article 09 Oct 2019

Research article | 09 Oct 2019

Environmental controls on surf zone injuries on high-energy beaches

Bruno Castelle et al.

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Cited articles

Aagaard, T. and Vinther, N.: Cross-shore currents in the surf zone: rips or undertow?, J. Coast. Res., 24, 561–570, 2008. 
Aagaard, T., Greenwood, B., and Nielsen, J.: Mean currents and sediment transport in a rip channel, Mar. Geol., 140, 25–45, 1997. 
Almar, R., Castelle, B., Ruessink, B. G., Sénéchal, N., Bonneton, P., and Marieu, V.: Two- and three-dimensional double-sandbar system behaviour under intense wave forcing and a meso–macro tidal range, Cont. Shelf Res., 30, 781–792, 2010. 
Angnuureng, D., Almar, R., Sénéchal, N., Castelle, B., Addo, K. A., Marieu, V., and Ranasinghe, R.: Shoreline resilience to individual storms and storm clusters on a meso-macrotidal barred beach, Geomorphology, 290, 265–276, 2017. 
Ardhuin, F., Roland, A., Dumas, F., Bennis, A.-C., Sentchev, A., Forget, P., Wolf, J., Girard, F., Osuna, P., and Benoit, M.: Numerical wave modeling in conditions with strong currents: Dissipation, refraction, and relative wind, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 42, 2101–2120, 2012. 
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For the first time we explore the influence of environmental conditions (wave and weather conditions, tide elevation, and beach morphology) on surf zone injuries (e.g. drowning incidents, spine injuries). Serious injuries are caused by the two primary hazards found along high-energy surf beaches: shore-break waves and narrow seaward-flowing rip currents, which have different environmental controls. Results have strong implications for future beach safety management and education of beach users.
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