Articles | Volume 14, issue 8
25 Aug 2014
Research article | 25 Aug 2014
Application and prospect of a high-resolution remote sensing and geo-information system in estimating earthquake casualties
T. Feng et al.
No articles found.
H. Zhang, B. Xie, S. Liu, R. Ding, Z. Ye, and X. Tong
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B1-2022, 79–84,
Q. Xu, H. Xie, Y. Sun, X. Liu, Y. Guo, P. Huang, B. Li, and X. Tong
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B2-2022, 309–314,
H. Zhang, Y. Shang, X. Tong, J. Chen, W. Ma, M. Li, Y. Lu, and H. Chen
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-3-2022, 619–625,
S. Luo, Y. Cheng, Z. Li, Y. Wang, K. Wang, X. Wang, G. Qiao, W. Ye, Y. Li, M. Xia, X. Yuan, Y. Tian, X. Tong, and R. Li
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B3-2021, 491–496,
Y. Gong, H. Xie, X. Tong, Y. Jin, X. Xv, and Q. Wang
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B4-2020, 103–108,
H. Zhang, S. Liu, Z. Ye, X. Tong, H. Xie, S. Zheng, and Q. Du
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLIII-B1-2020, 149–155,
Z. Ye, Y. Xu, C. Wei, X. Tong, and U. Stilla
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-1-2020, 157–163,
Y. Lu, J. Zhang, X. Tong, X. Lu, W. Han, H. Zhang, H. Zhao, and X. Liu
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-3-2020, 141–148,
Y. Wang, X. Tong, H. Xie, M. Jiang, Y. Huang, S. Liu, X. Xu, Q. Du, Q. Wang, and C. Wang
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., V-3-2020, 603–608,
Q. Fu, S. Liu, X. Tong, and H. Wang
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W16, 91–94,
S. Gao, Z. Ye, C. Wei, X. Liu, and X. Tong
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-2-W7, 33–38,
Y. Lu, J. Zhang, X. Tong, W. Han, and H. Zhao
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W13, 1243–1247,
Y. Cheng, X. Li, G. Qiao, W. Ye, Y. Huang, Y. Li, K. Wang, Y. Tian, X. Tong, and R. Li
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W13, 1735–1739,
R. Li, D. Lv, H. Xiao, S. Liu, Y. Cheng, G. Hai, and X. Tong
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W13, 1759–1763,
R. Li, H. Xie, Y. Tian, W. Du, J. Chen, G. Hai, S. Zhang, and X. Tong
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W13, 1765–1769,
Z. Ye, Y. Xu, L. Hoegner, X. Tong, and U. Stilla
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W13, 147–153,
Y. Tian, S. Zhang, W. Du, J. Chen, H. Xie, X. Tong, and R. Li
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 1657–1660,
Wenping Song, Shijie Liu, Xiaohua Tong, Changling Niu, Zhen Ye, Han Zhang, and Yanmin Jin
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-3, 193–196,
Xin Zhang, Shijie Liu, Haifeng Yu, Xiaohua Tong, and Guoman Huang
ISPRS Ann. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., IV-3, 267–271,
W. Du, L. Chen, H. Xie, G. Hai, S. Zhang, and X. Tong
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W7, 1513–1516,
G. Hai, H. Xie, J. Chen, L. Chen, R. Li, and X. Tong
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W7, 1517–1520,
M. Xia, G. Tang, Y. Tian, W. Ye, R. Li, and X. Tong
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W7, 1569–1573,
H. Xiao, S. Liu, R. Li, and X. Tong
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2-W7, 1575–1577,
Rongxing Li, Haifeng Xiao, Shijie Liu, and Xiaohua Tong
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Fracturing in the RFIS was slightly increased, particularly at its front, from 2003 to 2015. They do not seem to suggest an immediate significant impact on the stability of the shelf. However, with the rapid changes and 3D measurements of Rifts 1 and 2, the most active activities occurred at the front of the FIS from 2001 to 2016. A potential upcoming major calving event in FIS is estimated to occur in 2051. The stability of the ice shelf, particularly Rifts 1 and 2, should be closely monitored.
C. Guo, X. Tong, S. Liu, S. Liu, X. Lu, P. Chen, Y. Jin, and H. Xie
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3-W1, 49–53,
W. Zhao, X. Tong, H. Xie, Y. Jin, S. Liu, D. Wu, X. Liu, L. Guo, and Q. Zhou
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3-W1, 213–218,
Q. Zhou, X. Tong, S. Liu, X. Lu, S. Liu, P. Chen, Y. Jin, and H. Xie
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3-W1, 219–224,
W. Cao, X. H. Tong, S. C. Liu, and D. Wang
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLI-B8, 25–31,
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Chengjun Feng, Guangliang Gao, Shihuai Zhang, Dongsheng Sun, Siyu Zhu, Chengxuan Tan, and Xiaodong Ma
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Yavor Kamer, Guy Ouillon, and Didier Sornette
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3611–3625,Short summary
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Silvia Pondrelli, Francesco Visini, Andrea Rovida, Vera D'Amico, Bruno Pace, and Carlo Meletti
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3577–3592,Short summary
We used 100 years of seismicity in Italy to predict the hypothetical tectonic style of future earthquakes, with the purpose of using this information in a new seismic hazard model. To squeeze all possible information out of the available data, we created a chain of criteria to be applied in the input and output selection processes. The result is a list of cases from very clear ones, e.g., extensional tectonics in the central Apennines, to completely random tectonics for future seismic events.
Mark C. Quigley, Wendy Saunders, Chris Massey, Russ Van Dissen, Pilar Villamor, Helen Jack, and Nicola Litchfield
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3361–3385,Short summary
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Chieh-Hung Chen, Yang-Yi Sun, Strong Wen, Peng Han, Li-Ching Lin, Huaizhong Yu, Xuemin Zhang, Yongxin Gao, Chi-Chia Tang, Cheng-Horng Lin, and Jann-Yenq Liu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3333–3341,Short summary
Scientists demystify stress changes before mainshocks and utilize the foreshocks as an indicator. We investigate changes in seismicity far from mainshocks by using tens of thousands of M ≥ 2 quakes for 10 years in Taiwan and Japan. The results show that wide areas exhibit increased seismicity occurring more than several times in areas of the fault rupture. The stressed crust triggers resonance at frequencies varying from ~ 5 × 10–4 to ~ 10–3 Hz that is supported by the resonant frequency model.
Jin Chen, Hong Tang, and Wenkai Chen
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3117–3134,Short summary
The spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of aftershocks around the fault are analyzed according to the stress changes after the main earthquake. The model can be used to predict the multi-timescale anisotropy distribution of aftershocks fairly. The finite fault model of the main earthquake is used in the construction of the prediction model. The model is a deep neural network; the inputs are the stress components of each point; and the output is the probability of an aftershock.
Eugenio E. Vogel, Felipe G. Brevis, Denisse Pastén, Víctor Muñoz, Rodrigo A. Miranda, and Abraham C.-L. Chian
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2943–2960,Short summary
The Nazca–South American subduction front is one of the most active in the world. We have chosen four zones along this front to do a comparative study on possible different dynamics. Data are public and well tested in the last decades. The methods are original since mutability and Shannon entropy are not always used in this kind of problem, and, to our knowledge, this is the first time they are combined. The north of Chile could be a zone with greater chances of a large earthquake.
Saeideh Farahani, Behrouz Behnam, and Ahmad Tahershamsi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2889–2903,Short summary
Iran is located on the Alpide earthquake belt, in the active collision zone between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. Due to the rapid demands for new lifelines, a risk assessment should be performed to reduce the probable damage in advance. In this study, a precise GIS-based map is proposed by employing the HAZUS methodology.
Eveline Sayão, George Sand França, Maristela Holanda, and Alexandro Gonçalves
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2001–2019,Short summary
One of the biggest challenges in studying reservoir-triggered seismicity (RTS) is to identify factors that can trigger seismicity. A spatial database and a web viewer were created, gathering the data pertinent to the RTS study. Results were obtained in processing these data; for example, the occurrence of RTS increases with the height of the dam, the minimum limiting volume value is 1 × 10−4 km3 for occurrence of RTS, and for geology no correlations were found, among other results.
Hafize Basak Bayraktar and Ceren Ozer Sozdinler
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1741–1764,Short summary
In this study, probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis was performed for the Tuzla region in case of a Prince Island fault rupture, which is the closest fault zone to the megacity Istanbul, and it has been silent for centuries. A synthetic earthquake catalog is generated using Monte Carlo simulations, and these events are used for tsunami analysis. The results of the study show that the probability of exceedance of 0.3 m tsunami wave height is bigger than 90 % for the next 50 and 100 years.
Khalid Mahmood, Naveed Ahmad, Usman Khan, and Qaiser Iqbal
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1639–1661,Short summary
The paper presents probabilistic-based seismic hazard maps prepared for Peshawar for various return periods using classical PSHA. The study considered both shallow and deep earthquakes, represented by area sources, while using recent ground motion prediction equations. The hazard map for a 475-year return period was compared with the hazard map given in the Building Code of Pakistan; they were found to be in close agreement. The obtained maps may be used for infrastructure risk assessment.
Ekbal Hussain, John R. Elliott, Vitor Silva, Mabé Vilar-Vega, and Deborah Kane
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1533–1555,Short summary
Many of the rapidly expanding cities around the world are located near active tectonic faults that have not produced an earthquake in recent memory. But these faults are generally small, and so most previous seismic-hazard analysis has focussed on large, more distant faults. In this paper we show that a moderate-size earthquake on a fault close to the city of Santiago in Chile has a greater impact on the city than a great earthquake on the tectonic boundary in the ocean, about a 100 km away.
Patricio Venegas-Aravena, Enrique G. Cordaro, and David Laroze
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1485–1496,Short summary
Over the past few years, a number of data have emerged on predicting large earthquakes using the magnetic field. These measurements are becoming strongly supported by rock electrification mechanisms experimentally and theoretically in seismo-electromagnetic theory. However, the processes that occur within the faults have yet to be elucidated. That is why this work theoretically links the friction changes of the faults with the lithospheric magnetic anomalies that surround the faults.
Jeremy Rohmer, Pierre Gehl, Marine Marcilhac-Fradin, Yves Guigueno, Nadia Rahni, and Julien Clément
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1267–1285,Short summary
Fragility curves (FCs) are key tools for seismic probabilistic safety assessments that are performed at the level of the nuclear power plant (NPP). These statistical methods relate the probabilistic seismic hazard loading at the given site to the required performance of the NPP safety functions. In the present study, we investigate how the tools of non-stationary extreme value analysis can be used to model in a flexible manner the FCs for NPP.
Yu-Sheng Sun, Hsien-Chi Li, Ling-Yun Chang, Zheng-Kai Ye, and Chien-Chih Chen
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 743–753,Short summary
Real-time probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) was developed in consideration of its practicability for daily life and the rate of seismic activity with time. We selected the 2016 Meinong (ML 6.6) and the 2018 Hualien (ML 6.2) earthquakes in Taiwan as examples. The seismic intensity forecasting maps produced by the real-time PSHA facilitated the forecast of the maximum expected seismic intensity for the following 90 d. Compared with real data the maps showed considerable effectiveness.
Saad Khan, Mark van der Meijde, Harald van der Werff, and Muhammad Shafique
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 399–411,Short summary
On 8 October 2005 the region of Kashmir was struck by a devastating earthquake of magnitude 7.6. Northern Pakistan and the region of Kashmir were severely damaged. The official death toll according to the Pakistani government was 87 350. It was thought that the terrain could have played a crucial role in the damage caused by the earthquake directly or indirectly. In this article we found that the terrain played a crucial role in intensifying the devastation of the earthquake.
Matty Sharon, Amir Sagy, Ittai Kurzon, Shmuel Marco, and Marcelo Rosensaft
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 125–148,Short summary
We present a methodology for mapping faults that constitute far-field (ground motion) and near-field (surface rupture) hazards to structures, particularly for critical facilities. For categorising faults, the criteria are adjusted to local tectonic characteristics, combining data of geological maps, instrumental seismicity, geodesy and past earthquakes. Our results adhere to international standards of hazard assessment for nuclear power plants and improve the regional tectonic understanding.
Jing Cui, Xuhui Shen, Jingfa Zhang, Weiyu Ma, and Wei Chu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2841–2854,
Christoph Pilger, Peter Gaebler, Lars Ceranna, Alexis Le Pichon, Julien Vergoz, Anna Perttu, Dorianne Tailpied, and Benoit Taisne
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2811–2825,Short summary
This paper provides infrasound data analysis, modeling, and interpretation of the source characteristics of the 28 September 2018 magnitude 7.5 Sulawesi earthquake. Epicentral ground movement by the earthquake rupture as well as the secondary shaking of nearby mountainous topography is responsible for the strong infrasound generated. Findings allow one to improve knowledge of infrasonic and seismoacoustic source processes and the monitoring capabilities of the infrasound arrays used.
Snježana Markušić, Davor Stanko, Tvrtko Korbar, and Ivica Sović
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2701–2714,Short summary
Based on κ values, estimated from local earthquakes recorded by seismological stations situated in the western part of Croatia, regional near-surface attenuation is defined. It shows that attenuation properties of rocks in the northwestern External Dinarides are far from isotropic. The most likely anisotropy sources are the preferential orientations of cracks and fractures under the local tectonic stress field, trapping of waves along major faults, and/or attenuation within the fault zones.
Michèle Marti, Michael Stauffacher, and Stefan Wiemer
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2677–2700,Short summary
Maps are an established way to illustrate natural hazards and regularly used to communicate with non-experts. However, there is evidence that they are frequently misconceived. Using a real case, our study shows that applying or disregarding best practices in visualization, editing, and presentation significantly impacts the comprehensibility of seismic hazard information. We suggest scrutinizing current natural-hazard communication strategies and empirically testing new products.
Josh Borella, Mark Quigley, Zoe Krauss, Krystina Lincoln, Januka Attanayake, Laura Stamp, Henry Lanman, Stephanie Levine, Sam Hampton, and Darren Gravley
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2249–2280,Short summary
Here we evaluate geologic, geomorphic, and anthropogenic controls on rockfall hazard and highlight the complexity of interpreting future rockfall hazard based on former boulder distributions. To evaluate how past rockfall deposits relate to contemporary rockfall hazard, we mapped then compared the locations, physical characteristics, and lithologies of rockfall boulders deposited during the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence (n = 185) with their prehistoric counterparts (n = 1093).
Panjamani Anbazhagan, Ketan Bajaj, Karanpreet Matharu, Sayed S. R. Moustafa, and Nassir S. N. Al-Arifi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2097–2115,Short summary
In the present study, mapping of probability of exceedance of peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration for the Patna district is presented considering both classical and zoneless approaches through the logic tree framework to capture the epistemic uncertainty.
Patricio Venegas-Aravena, Enrique G. Cordaro, and David Laroze
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1639–1651,Short summary
Several authors have shown evidence of electromagnetic measurements prior to earthquakes. However, these investigations lack a physical mechanism to support them. That is why we developed a theory that could explain many of these phenomena. Specifically, we demonstrate that the generation of microcracks in the lithosphere due to stress changes can explain and describe these electromagnetic phenomena.
Qiang Qiu, Linlin Li, Ya-Ju Hsu, Yu Wang, Chung-Han Chan, and Adam D. Switzer
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1565–1583,Short summary
The accuracy of tsunami hazard assessments is highly dependent on the reliability of earthquake source models. In this study, we combine the most updated geological and geophysical data of the Manila subduction zone to propose a series of possible rupture scenarios. These rupture models facilitate an improved understanding of the potential tsunami hazard in the South China Sea. The results highlight the grave consequences faced by the SCS, one of the world's most densely populated coastlines.
Roberto Gentile, Carmine Galasso, Yunita Idris, Ibnu Rusydy, and Ella Meilianda
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1365–1386,Short summary
This paper introduces the INSPIRE index, which quantifies the relative seismic risk of reinforced concrete buildings. A rapid visual survey form is proposed, which allows us to (1) calculate the INSPIRE index, (2) calculate a tsunami risk index, and (3) define archetype buildings to be analysed in more detail. The effectiveness of such tools is demonstrated with an application to 85 school buildings in Indonesia, also providing detailed numerical simulations for an archetype building.
Peijian Shi, Mei Li, Yang Li, Jie Liu, Haixia Shi, Tao Xie, and Chong Yue
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1119–1127,Short summary
A statistical method is tentatively utilized to study distribution properties of aftershocks of the Wenchuan sequence in the view of energy release. The results show that the events in the Wenchuan sequence are not independent but have mutual attraction, their spatio–temporal distribution tends to be nonrandom but definite and deterministic, and imply it is possible for energy release to be predicted, although we cannot accurately predict the occurrence time and locations of the imminent event.
Zhonghai Wu, Patrick J. Barosh, Guanghao Ha, Xin Yao, Yongqiang Xu, and Jie Liu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 873–888,Short summary
The main damage characteristics have been reported in Nepal caused by the 2015 Nepal earthquake but not in China. Our investigations suggested that damage caused by the earthquake in Tibet varies with intensity, amount of rock weakened by previous movement, steepness of slope, and lithology. The damage shows directional features mainly developed in the N-trending rifts in southern Tibet. The earthquake-induced landslides and collapses generally occurred where previous ones had taken place.
Mor Kanari, Oded Katz, Ram Weinberger, Naomi Porat, and Shmuel Marco
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 889–906,Short summary
We study rockfall hazard to a town in an earthquake-prone area, where large trailer-truck-sized boulders are scattered downslope above the town. Mapping boulder locations and sizes (in the field and in past aerial photos) and calculating their predicted trajectories downslope using computer simulation yielded a hazard map for rockfall impact. Hazard is reduced where slope angle is below 10°. Dating rockfalls coincides with past earthquakes and predicts probability for future rockfall.
Ying Zhang and Qingyan Meng
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 535–549,Short summary
There is a long history of researching earthquake prediction, but weaknesses in traditional approaches to seismic hazards have become more and more evident. Remote sensing was used with earth observation technology, which is a new method that can instantly acquire a large area of abnormal information caused by earthquakes. In this paper, a popular method was tested in Sichuan but it did not perform well in earthquake predictions of this area. The causes have also been studied.
Jianfei Wang, Jingfa Zhang, Lixia Gong, Qiang Li, and Dan Zhou
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3253–3266,Short summary
This paper focused on the indirect economic losses caused by the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 and evaluated the progress of restoration and reconstruction based on nighttime light images. Results show that the GDP has a quadratic function relationship with the total nighttime lights under normal conditions, and the economy of the disaster area after the earthquake showed unstable and turbulent development. This research provides a basis for macro-control of earthquake recovery and reconstruction.
Avith Mendoza-Ponce, Angel Figueroa-Soto, Diana Soria-Caballero, and Víctor Hugo Garduño-Monroy
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3121–3135,Short summary
This research carries out an investigation of the dynamics of the Pátzcuaro–Acambay fault system in central Mexico. We use a fractal analysis of slip rates and magnitudes Mw, estimated from fault length to define faults that are susceptible of generating earthquakes. We found that 316 faults are active and moreover the existence of three zones with different deformation processes. The implications of this new micro-regionalization are very important in order to reduce seismic hazard.
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