Articles | Volume 22, issue 7
Research article
25 Jul 2022
Research article |  | 25 Jul 2022

Full-scale experiments to examine the role of deadwood in rockfall dynamics in forests

Adrian Ringenbach, Elia Stihl, Yves Bühler, Peter Bebi, Perry Bartelt, Andreas Rigling, Marc Christen, Guang Lu, Andreas Stoffel, Martin Kistler, Sandro Degonda, Kevin Simmler, Daniel Mader, and Andrin Caviezel

Related authors

Shape still matters: rockfall interactions with trees and deadwood in a mountain forest uncover a new facet of rock shape dependency
Adrian Ringenbach, Peter Bebi, Perry Bartelt, Andreas Rigling, Marc Christen, Yves Bühler, Andreas Stoffel, and Andrin Caviezel
Earth Surf. Dynam., 11, 779–801,,, 2023
Short summary
Modeling deadwood for rockfall mitigation assessments in windthrow areas
Adrian Ringenbach, Peter Bebi, Perry Bartelt, Andreas Rigling, Marc Christen, Yves Bühler, Andreas Stoffel, and Andrin Caviezel
Earth Surf. Dynam., 10, 1303–1319,,, 2022
Short summary

Related subject area

Risk Assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies, Socioeconomic and Management Aspects
Anticipating a risky future: long short-term memory (LSTM) models for spatiotemporal extrapolation of population data in areas prone to earthquakes and tsunamis in Lima, Peru
Christian Geiß, Jana Maier, Emily So, Elisabeth Schoepfer, Sven Harig, Juan Camilo Gómez Zapata, and Yue Zhu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1051–1064,,, 2024
Short summary
A new regionally consistent exposure database for Central Asia: population and residential buildings
Chiara Scaini, Alberto Tamaro, Baurzhan Adilkhan, Satbek Sarzhanov, Vakhitkhan Ismailov, Ruslan Umaraliev, Mustafo Safarov, Vladimir Belikov, Japar Karayev, and Ettore Faga
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 929–945,,, 2024
Short summary
Study on seismic risk assessment model of water supply systems in mainland China
Tianyang Yu, Banghua Lu, Hui Jiang, and Zhi Liu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 803–822,,, 2024
Short summary
Mapping current and future flood exposure using a 5 m flood model and climate change projections
Connor Darlington, Jonathan Raikes, Daniel Henstra, Jason Thistlethwaite, and Emma K. Raven
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 699–714,,, 2024
Short summary
Brief communication: On the environmental impacts of the 2023 floods in Emilia-Romagna (Italy)
Chiara Arrighi and Alessio Domeneghetti
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 673–679,,, 2024
Short summary

Cited articles

Ammann, M.: Schutzwirkung abgestorbener Bäume gegen Naturgefahren, Eidg. Forschungsanstalt für Wald Schnee und Landschaft WSL, Birmensdorf,, (last access: 14 July 2022), 2006. a, b
Bourrier, F., Dorren, L. K. A., and Berger, F.: Full scale field tests on rockfall impacting trees felled transverse to the slope, in: Conference proceedings/12th Congress Interpraevent, edited by: Koboltschnig, G. and Huebl, J., International Research Society INTERPRAEVENT, Klagenfurt, 643–650,, (last access: 14 July 2022), 2012. a, b, c, d, e, f
Caviezel, A., Schaffner, M., Cavigelli, L., Niklaus, P., Buhler, Y., Bartelt, P., Magno, M., and Benini, L.: Design and Evaluation of a Low-Power Sensor Device for Induced Rockfall Experiments, IEEE T. Instrum. Meas., 67, 767–779,, 2018. a
Caviezel, A., Demmel, S. E., Ringenbach, A., Bühler, Y., Lu, G., Christen, M., Dinneen, C. E., Eberhard, L. A., von Rickenbach, D., and Bartelt, P.: Reconstruction of four-dimensional rockfall trajectories using remote sensing and rock-based accelerometers and gyroscopes, Earth Surf. Dynam., 7, 199–210,, 2019a. a
Caviezel, A., Lu, G., Demmel, S. E., Ringenbach, A., Bühler, Y., Christen, M., and Bartelt, P.: RAMMS::ROCKFALL – a modern 3-dimensional simulation tool calibrated on real world data, in: 53rd US rock mechanics/geomechanics symposium, vol. 19-223, edited by: American Rock Mechanics Association,, (last access: 14 July 2022), 2019b. a
Short summary
Forests have a recognized braking effect on rockfalls. The impact of lying deadwood, however, is mainly neglected. We conducted 1 : 1-scale rockfall experiments in three different states of a spruce forest to fill this knowledge gap: the original forest, the forest including lying deadwood and the cleared area. The deposition points clearly show that deadwood has a protective effect. We reproduced those experimental results numerically, considering three-dimensional cones to be deadwood.
Final-revised paper