Articles | Volume 18, issue 10
Research article
24 Oct 2018
Research article |  | 24 Oct 2018

Combining probability distributions of sea level variations and wave run-up to evaluate coastal flooding risks

Ulpu Leijala, Jan-Victor Björkqvist, Milla M. Johansson, Havu Pellikka, Lauri Laakso, and Kimmo K. Kahma

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Revised manuscript not accepted
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Cited articles

Battjes, J. A.: Long-term wave height distributions at seven stations around the British Isles, Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrift, 25, 179–189,, 1972. a
Björkqvist, J.-V., Tuomi, L., Fortelius, C., Pettersson, H., Tikka, K., and Kahma, K. K.: Improved estimates of nearshore wave conditions in the Gulf of Finland, J. Mar Syst., 171, 43–53,, 2017a. a, b
Björkqvist, J.-V., Tuomi, L., Tollman, N., Kangas, A., Pettersson, H., Marjamaa, R., Jokinen, H., and Fortelius, C.: Brief communication: Characteristic properties of extreme wave events observed in the northern Baltic Proper, Baltic Sea, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1653–1658,, 2017b. a
Björkqvist, J.-V., Vähäaho, I., and Kahma, K.: Spectral field measurements of wave reflection at a steep shore with wave damping chambers, WIT Trans. Built Env., 170, 185–191, 2017c. a, b, c, d
Cannaby, H., Palmer, M. D., Howard, T., Bricheno, L., Calvert, D., Krijnen, J., Wood, R., Tinker, J., Bunney, C., Harle, J., Saulter, A., O'Neill, C., Bellingham, C., and Lowe, J.: Projected sea level rise and changes in extreme storm surge and wave events during the 21st century in the region of Singapore, Ocean Sci., 12, 613–632,, 2016. a
Short summary
The coastal flooding risks based on the combined effect of sea level variations and wind-generated waves are estimated for the present, 2050 and 2100. The variability of the wave conditions between the two case study locations in the Helsinki archipelago leads to a difference in the safe building levels of up to 1 m. The rising mean sea level in the Gulf of Finland and the uncertainty of the associated scenarios contribute to the flooding risks notably in 2100.
Final-revised paper