Articles | Volume 15, issue 11
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2569–2583, 2015
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 2569–2583, 2015

Research article 30 Nov 2015

Research article | 30 Nov 2015

The importance of entrainment and bulking on debris flow runout modeling: examples from the Swiss Alps

F. Frank et al.

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Cited articles

Badoux, A., Graf, C., Rhyner, J., Kuntner, R., and McArdell, B. W.: A debris flow alarm system for the Alpine Illgraben catchment: design and performance, Nat. Hazards, 49, 517–539, 2009.
Bartelt, P., Salm, B., and Gruber, U.: Calculating dense-snow avalanche runout using a Voellmy-fluid model with active/passive longitudinal straining, J. Glaciol., 45, 242–254, 1999.
Bartelt, P., Buehler, Y., Christen, M., Deubelbeiss, Y., Graf, C., and McArdell, B. W.: RAMMS – rapid mass movement simulation, A modeling system for debris flows in research and practice, user manual v1.5, debris flow, manuscript update: 31 January 2013, WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, available at: (last access: 27 February 2015), 2013.
Beguería, S., Van Asch, Th. W. J., Malet, J.-P., and Gröndahl, S.: A GIS-based numerical model for simulating the kinematics of mud and debris flows over complex terrain, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 1897–1909,, 2009.
Bennett, G. L., Molnar, P., Eisenbeiss, H., and McArdell, B. W.: Erosional power in the Swiss Alps: Characterizing slope failure at the head of the Illgraben, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 37, 1627–1640, 2012.
Short summary
The sudden onset of large and erosive debris flows has been observed recently in different catchments in Switzerland, implicating the importance of erosion for debris flow modelling. Therefore, an erosion model was established based on field data (relationship between maximum shear stress and erosion depth and rate) of several debris flows measured at the Illgraben. Erosion model tests at the Spreitgraben showed considerable improvements in runout pattern as well as hydrograph propagation.
Final-revised paper