Articles | Volume 22, issue 8
Research article
12 Aug 2022
Research article |  | 12 Aug 2022

Comparison of sustainable flood risk management by four countries – the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States, and Japan – and the implications for Asian coastal megacities

Faith Ka Shun Chan, Liang Emlyn Yang, Gordon Mitchell, Nigel Wright, Mingfu Guan, Xiaohui Lu, Zilin Wang, Burrell Montz, and Olalekan Adekola

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Cited articles

Aerts, J. C. J. H., Lin, N., Botzen, W., Emanuel, K., and de Moel, H.: Low-Probability Flood Risk Modeling for New York City, Risk Anal., 33, 772–788,, 2013. 
Arnell, N. W.: Flood hazard management in the United States and the National Flood Insurance Program, Geoforum, 15, 525–542,, 1984. 
Ashley, R., Gersonius, B., and Horton, B.: Managing flooding: from a problem to an opportunity, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. A, 378, 2169,, 2020. 
Bagstad, K. J., Stapleton, K., and D'Agostino, J. R.: Taxes, subsidies, and insurance as drivers of United States coastal development, Ecol. Econ., 63, 285–298,, 2007. 
Ball, T., Werritty, A., and Geddes, A.: Insurance and sustainability in flood-risk management: the UK in a transitional state, Area, 45, 266–272,, 2013. 
Short summary
Sustainable flood risk management (SFRM) has become popular since the 1980s. This study examines the past and present flood management experiences in four developed countries (UK, the Netherlands, USA, and Japan) that have frequently suffered floods. We analysed ways towards SFRM among Asian coastal cities, which are still reliant on a hard-engineering approach that is insufficient to reduce future flood risk. We recommend stakeholders adopt mixed options to undertake SFRM practices.
Final-revised paper