Articles | Volume 21, issue 10
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3175–3198, 2021
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3175–3198, 2021
Research article
20 Oct 2021
Research article | 20 Oct 2021

Flood–pedestrian simulator for modelling human response dynamics during flood-induced evacuation: Hillsborough stadium case study

Mohammad Shirvani and Georges Kesserwani

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Cited articles

Abebe, Y. A., Ghorbani, A., Nikolic, I., Manojlovic, N., Gruhn, A., and Vojinovic, Z.: The role of household adaptation measures in reducing vulnerability to flooding: a coupled agent-based and flood modelling approach, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5329–5354,, 2020. 
Aboelata, M. and Bowles, D. S.: LIFESim: A tool for estimating and reducing life-loss resulting from dam and levee failures, in: Proceedings of the Association of State Dam Safety Officials “Dam Safety 2008” Conference, Indian Wells, California, 7–11 September 2008, 533–574, available at: (last access: 15 January 2021), 2008. 
Aerts, J. C.: Integrating agent-based approaches with flood risk models: a review and perspective, Water Secur., 11, 1–9,, 2020. 
Aerts, J. C., Botzen, W. J., Clarke, K. C., Cutter, S. L., Hall, J. W., Merz, B., Michel-Kerjan, E., Mysiak, J., Surminski, S., and Kunreuther, H.: Integrating human behaviour dynamics into flood disaster risk assessment, Nat. Clim. Change, 8, 193–199,, 2018. 
Alonso Vicario, S., Mazzoleni, M., Bhamidipati, S., Gharesifard, M., Ridolfi, E., Pandolfo, C., and Alfonso, L.: Unravelling the influence of human behaviour on reducing casualties during flood evacuation, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 65, 2359–2375,, 2020. 
Short summary
Flooding in and around urban hubs can stress people. Immediate evacuation is a usual countermeasure taken at the onset of a flooding event. The flood–pedestrian simulator simulates evacuation of people prior to and during a flood event. It provides information on the spatio-temporal responses of individuals, evacuation time, and possible safe destinations. This study demonstrates the simulator when considering more realistic human body and age characteristics and responses to floodwater.
Final-revised paper