Articles | Volume 21, issue 10
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3175–3198, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-21-3175-2021
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 3175–3198, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-21-3175-2021

Research article 20 Oct 2021

Research article | 20 Oct 2021

Flood–pedestrian simulator for modelling human response dynamics during flood-induced evacuation: Hillsborough stadium case study

Mohammad Shirvani and Georges Kesserwani

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Cited articles

Abebe, Y. A., Ghorbani, A., Nikolic, I., Manojlovic, N., Gruhn, A., and Vojinovic, Z.: The role of household adaptation measures in reducing vulnerability to flooding: a coupled agent-based and flood modelling approach, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 5329–5354, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-5329-2020, 2020. 
Aboelata, M. and Bowles, D. S.: LIFESim: A tool for estimating and reducing life-loss resulting from dam and levee failures, in: Proceedings of the Association of State Dam Safety Officials “Dam Safety 2008” Conference, Indian Wells, California, 7–11 September 2008, 533–574, available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.155.2659 (last access: 15 January 2021), 2008. 
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Aerts, J. C., Botzen, W. J., Clarke, K. C., Cutter, S. L., Hall, J. W., Merz, B., Michel-Kerjan, E., Mysiak, J., Surminski, S., and Kunreuther, H.: Integrating human behaviour dynamics into flood disaster risk assessment, Nat. Clim. Change, 8, 193–199, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0085-1, 2018. 
Alonso Vicario, S., Mazzoleni, M., Bhamidipati, S., Gharesifard, M., Ridolfi, E., Pandolfo, C., and Alfonso, L.: Unravelling the influence of human behaviour on reducing casualties during flood evacuation, Hydrolog. Sci. J., 65, 2359–2375, https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2020.1810254, 2020. 
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Short summary
Flooding in and around urban hubs can stress people. Immediate evacuation is a usual countermeasure taken at the onset of a flooding event. The flood–pedestrian simulator simulates evacuation of people prior to and during a flood event. It provides information on the spatio-temporal responses of individuals, evacuation time, and possible safe destinations. This study demonstrates the simulator when considering more realistic human body and age characteristics and responses to floodwater.
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