Articles | Volume 21, issue 9
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2753–2772, 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article 08 Sep 2021
Research article | 08 Sep 2021
Timely prediction potential of landslide early warning systems with multispectral remote sensing: a conceptual approach tested in the Sattelkar, Austria
Doris Hermle et al.
No articles found.
Philipp Mamot, Samuel Weber, Saskia Eppinger, and Michael Krautblatter
Earth Surf. Dynam., 9, 1125–1151,Short summary
The mechanical response of permafrost degradation on high-mountain rock slope stability has not been calculated in a numerical model yet. We present the first approach for a model with thermal and mechanical input data derived from laboratory and field work, and existing concepts. This is applied to a test site at the Zugspitze, Germany. A numerical sensitivity analysis provides the first critical stability thresholds related to the rock temperature, slope angle and fracture network orientation.
Michael Krautblatter, Lutz Schirrmeister, and Josefine Lenz
Polarforschung, 89, 69–71,
Carolin Kiefer, Patrick Oswald, Jasper Moernaut, Stefano Claudio Fabbri, Christoph Mayr, Michael Strasser, and Michael Krautblatter
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESurfShort summary
This study provides amphibious investigations of debris-flow fans. We characterize active debris-flow fans combining laser scan and sonar surveys at the Alpine lake Plansee. We discover a 4,000 year debris-flow record in sediment cores providing evidence for a ~7-fold debris-flow frequency increase in the 20th and 21st century coincident with 2-fold enhanced rainstorm activity in the Northern European Alps. Our results indicate climate change as the main factor controlling debris-flow activity.
Bernd Etzelmüller, Justyna Czekirda, Florence Magnin, Pierre-Allain Duvillard, Emmanuel Malet, Ludo Ravanel, Andreas Aspaas, Lene Kristensen, Ingrid Skrede, Gudrun D. Majala, Benjamin Jacobs, Johannes Leinauer, Christian Hauck, Christin Hilbich, Martina Böhme, Reginald Hermanns, Harald Ø. Eriksen, Michael Krautblatter, and Sebastian Westermann
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESurf
Ingo Hartmeyer, Robert Delleske, Markus Keuschnig, Michael Krautblatter, Andreas Lang, Lothar Schrott, and Jan-Christoph Otto
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 729–751,Short summary
Climate warming is causing significant ice surface lowering even in the uppermost parts of alpine glaciers. Using terrestrial lidar, we quantify rockfall in freshly exposed cirque walls. During 6-year monitoring (2011–2017), an extensive dataset was established and over 600 rockfall events identified. Drastically increased rockfall activity following ice retreat can clearly be observed as 60 % of the rockfall volume detached from less than 10 m above the glacier surface.
Ingo Hartmeyer, Markus Keuschnig, Robert Delleske, Michael Krautblatter, Andreas Lang, Lothar Schrott, Günther Prasicek, and Jan-Christoph Otto
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 753–768,Short summary
Rockfall size and frequency in two deglaciating cirques in the Central Alps, Austria, is analysed based on 6-year rockwall monitoring with terrestrial lidar (2011–2017). The erosion rates derived from this dataset are very high due to a frequent occurrence of large rockfalls in freshly deglaciated areas. The results obtained are important for rockfall hazard assessments, as, in rockwalls affected by glacier retreat, historical rockfall patterns are not good predictors of future events.
Philipp Mamot, Samuel Weber, Maximilian Lanz, and Michael Krautblatter
The Cryosphere, 14, 1849–1855,Short summary
A failure criterion for ice-filled rock joints is a prerequisite to accurately assess the stability of permafrost rock slopes. In 2018 a failure criterion was proposed based on limestone. Now, we tested the transferability to other rocks using mica schist and gneiss which provide the maximum expected deviation of lithological effects on the shear strength. We show that even for controversial rocks the failure criterion stays unaltered, suggesting that it is applicable to mostly all rock types.
Andreas Ewald, Ingo Hartmeyer, Markus Keuschnig, Andreas Lang, and Jan-Christoph Otto
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Processes destabilising recently deglaciated rocks, driving cirque headwall retreat, and putting alpine infrastructure at risk are poorly understood due to scarce in situ data. We monitored fracture deformation at a cirque headwall in the Austria Alps. We found thermo-mechanical expansion and freeze-thaw action as dominant processes for deformation. Our results highlight the importance of liquid water in combination with subzero-temperatures on the destabilisation of glacier headwalls.
Philipp Mamot, Samuel Weber, Tanja Schröder, and Michael Krautblatter
The Cryosphere, 12, 3333–3353,Short summary
Most of the observed failures in permafrost-affected alpine rock walls are likely triggered by the mechanical destabilisation of warming bedrock permafrost including ice-filled joints. We present a systematic study of the brittle shear failure of ice and rock–ice contacts along rock joints in a simulated depth ≤ 30 m and at temperatures from −10 to −0.5 °C. Warming and sudden reduction in rock overburden due to the detachment of an upper rock mass lead to a significant drop in shear resistance.
Wen Nie, Michael Krautblatter, Kerry Leith, Kurosch Thuro, and Judith Festl
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1595–1610,Short summary
Deep-seated landslides are an important and widespread natural hazard within alpine regions and can have a massive impact on infrastructure. Pore water pressure plays an important role in determining the stability of hydro-triggered deep-seated landslides. Here we demonstrate a modified tank model for deep-seated landslides that includes snow and infiltration effects and can effectively predict changes in pore water pressure in alpine environments.
Samuel Weber, Jan Beutel, Jérome Faillettaz, Andreas Hasler, Michael Krautblatter, and Andreas Vieli
The Cryosphere, 11, 567–583,Short summary
We present a 8-year continuous time series of measured fracture kinematics and thermal conditions on steep permafrost bedrock at Hörnligrat, Matterhorn. Based on this unique dataset and a conceptual model for strong fractured bedrock, we develop a novel quantitative approach that allows to separate reversible from irreversible fracture kinematics and assign the dominant forcing. A new index of irreversibility provides useful indication for the occurrence and timing of irreversible displacements.
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Johnny Douvinet, Anna Serra-Llobet, Esteban Bopp, and G. Mathias Kondolf
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2899–2920,Short summary
This study proposes to combine results of research regarding the spatial inequalities due to the siren coverage, the political dilemma of siren activation, and the social problem of siren awareness and trust for people in France. Surveys were conducted using a range of complementary methods (GIS analysis, statistical analysis, questionnaires, interviews) through different scales. Results show that siren coverage in France is often determined by population density but not risks or disasters.
Fabio Brighenti, Francesco Carnemolla, Danilo Messina, and Giorgio De Guidi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2881–2898,Short summary
In this paper we propose a methodology to mitigate hazard in a natural environment in an urbanized context. The deformation of the ground is a precursor of paroxysms in mud volcanoes. Therefore, through the analysis of the deformation supported by a statistical approach, this methodology was tested to reduce the hazard around the mud volcano. In the future, the goal is that this dangerous area will become both a naturalistic heritage and a source of development for the community of the area.
Michal Bíl, Pavel Raška, Lukáš Dolák, and Jan Kubeček
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2581–2596,Short summary
The online landslide database CHILDA (Czech Historical Landslide Database) summarises information about landslides which occurred in the area of Czechia (the Czech Republic). The database is freely accessible via the https://childa.cz/ website. It includes 699 records (spanning the period of 1132–1989). Overall, 55 % of all recorded landslide events occurred only within 15 years of the extreme landslide incidence.
Anna Kruspe, Jens Kersten, and Friederike Klan
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1825–1845,Short summary
Messages on social media can be an important source of information during crisis situations. This article reviews approaches for the reliable detection of informative messages in a flood of data. We demonstrate the varying goals of these approaches and present existing data sets. We then compare approaches based (1) on keyword and location filtering, (2) on crowdsourcing, and (3) on machine learning. We also point out challenges and suggest future research.
Enrique Guillermo Cordaro, Patricio Venegas-Aravena, and David Laroze
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1785–1806,Short summary
We developed a methodology that generates free externally disturbed magnetic variations in ground magnetometers close to the Chilean convergent margin. Spectral analysis (~ mHz) and magnetic anomalies increased prior to large Chilean earthquakes (Maule 2010, Mw 8.8; Iquique 2014, Mw 8.2; Illapel 2015, Mw 8.3). These findings relate to microcracks within the lithosphere due to stress state changes. This physical evidence should be thought of as a last stage of the earthquake preparation process.
Corey M. Scheip and Karl W. Wegmann
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1495–1511,Short summary
For many decades, natural disasters have been monitored by trained analysts using multiple satellite images to observe landscape change. This approach is incredibly useful, but our new tool, HazMapper, offers researchers and the scientifically curious public a web-accessible cloud-based tool to perform similar analysis. We intend for the tool to both be used in scientific research and provide rapid response to global natural disasters like landslides, wildfires, and volcanic eruptions.
Matti Wiegmann, Jens Kersten, Hansi Senaratne, Martin Potthast, Friederike Klan, and Benno Stein
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1431–1444,Short summary
In this paper, we study when social media is an adequate source to find metadata about incidents that cannot be acquired by traditional means. We identify six major use cases: impact assessment and verification of model predictions, narrative generation, recruiting citizen volunteers, supporting weakly institutionalized areas, narrowing surveillance areas, and reporting triggers for periodical surveillance.
Hugues Brenot, Nicolas Theys, Lieven Clarisse, Jeroen van Gent, Daniel R. Hurtmans, Sophie Vandenbussche, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Lucia Mona, Timo Virtanen, Andreas Uppstu, Mikhail Sofiev, Luca Bugliaro, Margarita Vázquez-Navarro, Pascal Hedelt, Michelle Maree Parks, Sara Barsotti, Mauro Coltelli, William Moreland, Delia Arnold-Arias, Marcus Hirtl, Tuomas Peltonen, Juhani Lahtinen, Klaus Sievers, Florian Lipok, Rolf Rüfenacht, Alexander Haefele, Maxime Hervo, Saskia Wagenaar, Wim Som de Cerff, Jos de Laat, Arnoud Apituley, Piet Stammes, Quentin Laffineur, Andy Delcloo, Robertson Lennart, Carl-Herbert Rokitansky, Arturo Vargas, Markus Kerschbaum, Christian Resch, Raimund Zopp, Matthieu Plu, Vincent-Henri Peuch, Michel Van Roozendael, and Gerhard Wotawa
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
The purpose of the EUNADICS prototype Early Warning System (EWS) is to proceed the combined use of harmonise data products from satellite, ground-based and in situ instruments to produce alerts of airborne hazard (volcanic, dust, smoke and radionuclide clouds), satisfying the requirement of ATM stakeholders (www.eunadics.eu).
Hui Liu, Ya Hao, Wenhao Zhang, Hanyue Zhang, Fei Gao, and Jinping Tong
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1179–1194,Short summary
We trained a recurrent neural network model to classify microblogging posts related to urban waterlogging and establish an online monitoring system of urban waterlogging caused by flood disasters. We manually curated more than 4400 waterlogging posts to train the RNN model so that it can precisely identify waterlogging-related posts of Sina Weibo to timely determine urban waterlogging.
Natalie Brožová, Tommaso Baggio, Vincenzo D'Agostino, Yves Bühler, and Peter Bebi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for NHESSShort summary
Surface roughness plays a big role in natural hazard processes, but is not always well implemented in natural hazard modelling. The results of our study show, how surface roughness can be useful in representing vegetation and ground structures, which are currently underrated. By including surface roughness into natural hazard modelling, we could better illustrate the processes and thus improve hazard mapping, which is crucial for infrastructure and settlement planning in mountainous areas.
Roope Tervo, Ilona Láng, Alexander Jung, and Antti Mäkelä
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 607–627,Short summary
Predicting the number of power outages caused by extratropical storms is a key challenge for power grid operators. We introduce a novel method to predict the storm severity for the power grid employing ERA5 reanalysis data combined with a forest inventory. The storms are first identified from the data and then classified using several machine-learning methods. While there is plenty of room to improve, the results are already usable, with support vector classifier providing the best performance.
Michaela Wenner, Clément Hibert, Alec van Herwijnen, Lorenz Meier, and Fabian Walter
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 339–361,Short summary
Mass movements constitute a risk to property and human life. In this study we use machine learning to automatically detect and classify slope failure events using ground vibrations. We explore the influence of non-ideal though commonly encountered conditions: poor network coverage, small number of events, and low signal-to-noise ratios. Our approach enables us to detect the occurrence of rare events of high interest in a large data set of more than a million windowed seismic signals.
Luiz Felipe Galizia, Thomas Curt, Renaud Barbero, and Marcos Rodrigues
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 73–86,Short summary
This paper aims to provide a quantitative evaluation of three remotely sensed fire datasets which have recently emerged as an important resource to improve our understanding of fire regimes. Our findings suggest that remotely sensed fire datasets can be used to proxy variations in fire activity on monthly and annual timescales; however, caution is advised when drawing information from smaller fires (< 100 ha) across the Mediterranean region.
Philippe Weyrich, Anna Scolobig, Florian Walther, and Anthony Patt
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2811–2821,
Patric Kellermann, Kai Schröter, Annegret H. Thieken, Sören-Nils Haubrock, and Heidi Kreibich
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2503–2519,Short summary
The flood damage database HOWAS 21 contains object-speciﬁc ﬂood damage data resulting from fluvial, pluvial and groundwater flooding. The datasets incorporate various variables of ﬂood hazard, exposure, vulnerability and direct tangible damage at properties from several economic sectors. This paper presents HOWAS 21 and highlights exemplary analyses to demonstrate the use of HOWAS 21 flood damage data.
Giuseppe Esposito, Ivan Marchesini, Alessandro Cesare Mondini, Paola Reichenbach, Mauro Rossi, and Simone Sterlacchini
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2379–2395,Short summary
In this article, we present an automatic processing chain aimed to support the detection of landslides that induce sharp land cover changes. The chain exploits free software and spaceborne SAR data, allowing the systematic monitoring of wide mountainous regions exposed to mass movements. In the test site, we verified a general accordance between the spatial distribution of seismically induced landslides and the detected land cover changes, demonstrating its potential use in emergency management.
Mohammad Malakootian and Majid Nozari
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2351–2363,Short summary
The present study estimated the Kerman–Baghin aquifer vulnerability using DRASTIC and composite DRASTIC (CDRASTIC) indices with the aid of geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The aquifer vulnerability maps indicated very similar results, identifying the north-west parts of the aquifer as areas with high to very high vulnerability. According to the results, parts of the studied aquifer have a high vulnerability and require protective measures.
Diana Contreras, Alondra Chamorro, and Sean Wilkinson
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 1663–1687,Short summary
The socio-economic condition of the population determines their vulnerability to earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, landslides, soil erosion and land degradation. This condition is estimated mainly from population censuses. The lack to access to basic services, proximity to hazard zones, poverty and population density highly influence the vulnerability of communities. Mapping the location of this vulnerable population makes it possible to prevent and mitigate their risk.
Simona Colombelli, Francesco Carotenuto, Luca Elia, and Aldo Zollo
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 921–931,Short summary
We developed a mobile app for Android devices which receives the alerts generated by a network-based early warning system, predicts the expected ground-shaking intensity and the available lead time at the user position, and provides customized messages to inform the user about the proper reaction to the alert. The app represents a powerful tool for informing in real time a wide audience of end users and stakeholders about the potential damaging shaking in the occurrence of an earthquake.
Richard Styron, Julio García-Pelaez, and Marco Pagani
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 831–857,Short summary
The Caribbean and Central American region is both tectonically active and densely populated, leading to a large population that is exposed to earthquake hazards. Until now, no comprehensive fault data covering the region have been available. We present a new public fault database for Central America and the Caribbean that synthesizes published studies with new mapping from remote sensing to provide fault sources for the CCARA seismic hazard and risk analysis project and to aid future research.
María del Pilar Jiménez-Donaire, Ana Tarquis, and Juan Vicente Giráldez
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 21–33,Short summary
A new combined drought indicator (CDI) is proposed that integrates rainfall, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics. The performance of this indicator was evaluated against crop damage data from agricultural insurance schemes in five different areas in SW Spain. Results show that this indicator was able to predict important droughts in 2004–2005 and 2011–2012, marked by crop damage of between 70 % and 95 % of the total insured area. This opens important applications for improving insurance schemes.
Quancai Xie, Qiang Ma, Jingfa Zhang, and Haiying Yu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2827–2839,Short summary
This paper evaluates a new method for modeling the site amplification factor. Through implementing this method and making simulations for different cases, we find that this method shows better performance than the previous method and JMA report. We better understand the advantages and disadvantages of this method, although there are some problems that need to be considered carefully and solved; it shows good potential to be used in future earthquake early warning systems.
David A. Bonneau, D. Jean Hutchinson, Paul-Mark DiFrancesco, Melanie Coombs, and Zac Sala
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2745–2765,Short summary
In mountainous regions around the world rockfalls pose a hazard to infrastructure and society. To aid in our understanding and management of these complex hazards, an inventory can be compiled. Three-dimensional remote sensing data can be used to locate the source zones of these events and generate models of areas which detached. We address the way in which the shape of a rockfall object can be measured. The shape of a rockfall has implications for forward modelling of potential runout zones.
Kwonmin Lee, Hye-Sil Kim, and Yong-Sang Choi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2241–2248,Short summary
This study examined the advances in the predictability of thunderstorms using geostationary satellite imageries. Our present results show that by using the latest geostationary satellite data (with a resolution of 2 km and 10 min), thunderstorms can be predicted 90–180 min ahead of their mature state. These data can capture the rapidly growing cloud tops before the cloud moisture falls as precipitation and enable prompt preparation and the mitigation of hazards.
Qingyun Zhang, Yongsheng Li, Jingfa Zhang, and Yi Luo
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2229–2240,Short summary
Before the opening of the railway, the deformation of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway was very small and considered stable. After opening, the overall stability of the railway section was good. The main deformation areas are concentrated in the areas where railway lines turn and geological disasters are concentrated. In order to ensure the safety of railway operation, it is necessary to carry out long-term time series observation along the Qinghai–Tibet Railway.
Xiao Huang, Cuizhen Wang, and Junyu Lu
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2141–2155,Short summary
This study examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of nighttime satellite-derived human settlement in response to different levels of hurricane proneness in a period from 1992 to 2013. It confirms the
Snow Belt-to-Sun BeltUS population shift trend. The results also suggest that hurricane-exposed human settlement has grown in extent and area, as more hurricane exposure has experienced a larger increase rate in settlement intensity.
Maja Kucharczyk and Chris H. Hugenholtz
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2039–2051,Short summary
We performed pre-disaster 3-D mapping with a drone in downtown Victoria, BC, Canada. This was the first drone mapping mission over a Canadian city approved by Canada’s aviation authority. We were legally constrained to using a specific drone. The goal was to assess the quality of the 3-D map. Results indicate that the spatial accuracies achieved with this drone would allow for sub-meter building collapse detection, but the non-tilting camera was insufficient for mapping buildings in 3-D.
Reza Hassanzadeh, Mehdi Honarmand, Mahdieh Hossienjani Zadeh, and Farzin Naseri
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1989–2009,Short summary
This paper proposes a new model for evaluating local seismic amplification susceptibility by considering direct characteristics of influencing criteria and dealing with uncertainty of modelling through production of fuzzy membership functions and GIS. This model helps planners and decision makers easily produce local seismic amplification susceptibility to be incorporated in designing development plans of urban areas and to evaluate safety measures of existing infrastructure.
Salvador Gil-Guirado, Alfredo Pérez-Morales, and Francisco Lopez-Martinez
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1955–1971,Short summary
In this study the SMC-Flood database for the municipalities of the Mediterranean coast of mainland Spain is presented. This database has enabled the reconstruction of 3008 cases of flooding on a municipal scale between 1960 and 2015. The data analysis reveals a growing trend in the frequency and area affected by flood cases. The main novelty lies in the fact that we have detected a clear latitudinal gradient of growing intensity and severity of flood cases with a north–south direction.
Juan José Martín-Sotoca, Antonio Saa-Requejo, Rubén Moratiel, Nicolas Dalezios, Ioannis Faraslis, and Ana María Tarquis
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1685–1702,Short summary
Vegetation indices based on satellite images, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), have been used for damaged pasture insurance. The occurrence of damage is usually defined by NDVI thresholds mainly based on normal statistics. In this work a pasture area in Spain was delimited by MODIS images. A statistical analysis of NDVI was applied to search for alternative distributions. Results show that generalized extreme value distributions present a better fit than normal ones.
Hongyan Chen, Gengxing Zhao, Yuhuan Li, Danyang Wang, and Ying Ma
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1499–1508,Short summary
Using Landsat data, the inversion model of soil salt content (SSC) for different seasons was determined in the Kenli District in the Yellow River Delta region of China. The SSC exhibited a gradual increasing trend from the southwest to northeast. The SSC accumulated in spring, decreased in summer, increased in autumn and reached its peak at the the end of winter. The results can provide data for the control of soil salt hazards and utilization of saline–alkali soil.
Jérome Faillettaz, Martin Funk, Jan Beutel, and Andreas Vieli
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1399–1413,Short summary
We developed a new strategy for real-time early warning of gravity-driven slope failures (such as landslides, rockfalls, glacier break-off, etc.). This method enables us to investigate natural slope stability based on continuous monitoring and interpretation of seismic waves generated by the potential instability. Thanks to a pilot experiment, we detected typical patterns of precursory events prior to slide events, demonstrating the potential of this method for real-word applications.
Yue Li, Shi Qi, Bin Liang, Junming Ma, Baihan Cheng, Cong Ma, Yidan Qiu, and Qinyan Chen
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 757–774,Short summary
This study fully considers the characteristics of expressways in mountain areas. The catchment area is considered a prediction unit. The method of slope division is improved, and a method of improving the parameters in the model is proposed. Comparison and analysis with actual observation data show that the method of soil and water loss prediction adopted in this paper has less error and higher prediction accuracy than other models and can satisfy prediction requirements.
Huseyin Duman and Dogan Ugur Sanli
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 571–582,Short summary
Research has been done to assess the performance of relative positioning over long baseline lengths in determining the accuracy of site velocities from GPS campaign measurements. GPS campaign measurements were generated from the IGS data, and the results were compared with PPP-derived findings. A major outcome of this study is that relative positioning over long baseline lengths produces similar accuracies to PPP. A newly proposed refinement method also improves the available PPP accuracy.
Alvaro Hofflinger, Marcelo A. Somos-Valenzuela, and Arturo Vallejos-Romero
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 251–267,Short summary
In this work, we propose a novel methodology (ReTSVI) to integrate a social vulnerability index into flood hazard methodologies. ReTSVI combines a series of modules that are pieces of information that interact during an evacuation, such as evacuation rate curves, mobilization, inundation models, and social vulnerability indexes, to create an integrated map of the evacuation rate in a given location.
Paulo Victor N. Araújo, Venerando E. Amaro, Robert M. Silva, and Alexandre B. Lopes
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 237–250,Short summary
This paper aims to map flood hazard areas under the influence of the Uruguay River, Itaqui (southern Brazil), using a calibrated digital elevation model (DEM), historic river level data and geoprocessing techniques. Assessment of the areas that can potentially be flooded can help to reduce the negative impact of flood events by supporting the process of land-use planning in areas exposed to flood hazards.
Gonzalo Álvarez, Marco Quiroz, Jorge León, and Rodrigo Cienfuegos
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2027–2039,Short summary
Evacuation planning has been recognized as one of the best tools for safeguarding the population against tsunami hazards. In this work we develop a novel methodology to identify and classify urban micro-vulnerabilities that may difficult pedestrian evacuation processes resulting from problems in urban design or informal uses of the public space. The correct identification and correction of these issues could make the difference in saving lives when the available time for evacuation is short.
Johnny Cusicanqui, Norman Kerle, and Francesco Nex
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1583–1598,Short summary
Aerial multi-perspective images can be used for the effective assessment of post-disaster structural damage. Alternatively, rapidly available video data can be processed for the same purpose. However, video quality characteristics are different than those of images taken with still cameras. The use of video data in post-disaster damage assessment has not been demonstrated. Based on a comparative assessment, our findings support the application of video data in post-disaster damage assessment.
Denis Feurer, Olivier Planchon, Mohamed Amine El Maaoui, Abir Ben Slimane, Mohamed Rached Boussema, Marc Pierrot-Deseilligny, and Damien Raclot
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1567–1582,Short summary
We present a method for acquiring very-high-resolution images for 3-D mapping of gullies over kilometre-square areas using kites. Kites used in appropriate conditions can be an advantageous alternative to light unmanned aircraft when local regulations or weather conditions hamper their use. We proved that kites can acquire images, allowing for high-quality 3-D coverage of large areas. We automatically detected and mapped gullies from a decimetre kite DEM with 74 % accuracy of the length.
Masoud Masoudi, Parviz Jokar, and Biswajeet Pradhan
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1133–1140,Short summary
The paper attempts to create a new technique for assessing the current state of land degradation. Assessment of land degradation is difficult, because it includes a complex process. This assessment, using RS and GIS seems to be more realistic in finding the degree of degradation, because it is more related to its impact on land productivity. It is hoped that this attempt, which is the first attempt of its kind in the world, will be found applicable for other regions.
Benoit Deffontaines, Kuo-Jen Chang, Johann Champenois, Kuan-Chuan Lin, Chyi-Tyi Lee, Rou-Fei Chen, Jyr-Ching Hu, and Samuel Magalhaes
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 829–845,Short summary
To better settle the location and quantify the activity of the Hengchun Fault, we integrate UAS for geomorphologic data acquisitions, photograph and morphotectonic interpretation. Then PS-InSAR results, validated with GPS and leveling data, allow characterizing and quantifying the surface displacements. We confirm the geometry, characterization and quantification of the active sinistral transpressive Hengchun fault. The potential hazards are worthy of further investigation.
Kuo-Jen Chang, Yu-Chang Chan, Rou-Fei Chen, and Yu-Chung Hsieh
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 709–727,Short summary
Several remote sensing techniques, i.e., aerial photographs, drone images, and airborne lidar, were used in this study to decipher the morphological features of obscure landslides in volcanic regions and how the observed features may be used for understanding landslide occurrence, subsequent geomorphological evolution, and potential hazards. Two large-scale landslides were characterized and quantified in this study.
Ákos Török, Árpád Barsi, Gyula Bögöly, Tamás Lovas, Árpád Somogyi, and Péter Görög
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 583–597,Short summary
The present study demonstrates the application of drones and terrestrial laser scanner in stability assessment of steep, hardly accessible rock slopes that can endanger human lives. These technologies can be deployed very quickly, but data processing requires time. For reliable hazard evaluation, besides these techniques, engineering geological field work, laboratory tests of the mechanical properties of rocks and computer simulations are also necessary.
Riccardo Salvini, Giovanni Mastrorocco, Giuseppe Esposito, Silvia Di Bartolo, John Coggan, and Claudio Vanneschi
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 287–302,Short summary
Remotely Piloted Aircraft System was used for the engineering geological investigation of a marble mine area in Italy. High resolution images were processed by using SfM techniques for obtaining an accurate and detailed three-dimensional model of the area. Geological and geometrical information was used for a preliminary stability analysis with focus on investigating the contribution of potential rock bridges of two large blocks that pose a potential hazard issue for the workforce.
Haifeng Huang, Jingjing Long, Wu Yi, Qinglin Yi, Guodong Zhang, and Bangjun Lei
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1961–1979,Short summary
Unmanned aerial vehicles are widely used in the emergency investigations of major natural hazards in a large area, but less commonly for single geo-hazards. Based on a number of successful practices in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China, a complete UAV-based emergency investigation method of single geo-hazards is concluded. It can not only greatly reduce the time, strength and risks, but can also provide high-accuracy, high-definition valuable information to support emergency responses.
Marco Cannioto, Antonino D'Alessandro, Giosuè Lo Bosco, Salvatore Scudero, and Giovanni Vitale
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1939–1946,Short summary
Immediately after an earthquake it is crucial to perform the fastest recognition of the damaged area to rescue as much people is possible and to assess and map the damage scenario. We apply the vehicle routing problem (VRP) to a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to find the shortest routes and the best take-off sites. The simulation, performed with different autonomy ranges, is carried out in the town of Acireale (Italy), where a real-time accelerometric network has been installed.
Hiroto Nagai, Manabu Watanabe, Naoya Tomii, Takeo Tadono, and Shinichi Suzuki
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1907–1921,Short summary
We demonstrated an assessment of the sediments caused by a catastrophic avalanche, induced by the main shock of the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal. A Japanese space-borne sensor, PALSAR-2, have a high potential for delineating the hazardous zone. Comparison of pre- and post-high-resolution topographic data estimates the avalanche-induced sediment volume as 5.51 × 106 m3. High-resolution satellite imagery revealed that it has multiple layers of sediment with different physical properties.
William Frodella, Teresa Salvatici, Veronica Pazzi, Stefano Morelli, and Riccardo Fanti
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1779–1793,Short summary
A local scale GB-InSAR system was implemented for mapping and monitoring slope landslide residual deformations and for early warning purposes in case of landslide reactivations, with the aim of assuring the safety of the valley inhabitants and the personnel involved in the post-event recovery phase. The here presented methodology could represent a useful contribution to a better understanding of landslide phenomena and decision making process during the post-emergency management activities.
Emanuele Intrieri, Federica Bardi, Riccardo Fanti, Giovanni Gigli, Francesco Fidolini, Nicola Casagli, Sandra Costanzo, Antonio Raffo, Giuseppe Di Massa, Giovanna Capparelli, and Pasquale Versace
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1713–1723,Short summary
Landslides are a threat not only to people but also to important infrastructure, like highways. Nowadays there are several monitoring systems that are able to detect slope displacements in order to give prompt alarms. On the other hand, such instruments produce a huge amount of information, which is often not totally used and which can also represent an issue for data storage and transmission. In this paper we explain how we dealt with the large quantity of data provided by one of these tools.
Atsuto Izumida, Shoichiro Uchiyama, and Toshihiko Sugai
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1505–1519,Short summary
Geomorphic impact of the 2015 flood of the Kinu River, which created a new crevasse splay on its floodplain, was quantified by volumetric calculations using three topographic data obtained by aerial laser scanning (ALS) and UAV photogrammetry. Topographic changes on the order of 0.1 m were detected, and the erosive character of the crevasse splay was revealed. The results suggest that a combination of ALS and UAV is useful for quantification of sudden topographic changes through disasters.
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Multispectral remote sensing imagery enables landslide detection and monitoring, but its applicability to time-critical early warning is rarely studied. We present a concept to operationalise its use for landslide early warning, aiming to extend lead time. We tested PlanetScope and unmanned aerial system images on a complex mass movement and compared processing times to historic benchmarks. Acquired data are within the forecasting window, indicating the feasibility for landslide early warning.
Multispectral remote sensing imagery enables landslide detection and monitoring, but its...