Articles | Volume 20, issue 4
Research article
17 Apr 2020
Research article |  | 17 Apr 2020

Global-scale benefit–cost analysis of coastal flood adaptation to different flood risk drivers using structural measures

Timothy Tiggeloven, Hans de Moel, Hessel C. Winsemius, Dirk Eilander, Gilles Erkens, Eskedar Gebremedhin, Andres Diaz Loaiza, Samantha Kuzma, Tianyi Luo, Charles Iceland, Arno Bouwman, Jolien van Huijstee, Willem Ligtvoet, and Philip J. Ward

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Cited articles

Aerts, J. C. J. H., Botzen, W., and De Moel, H.: Cost estimates of flood protection and resilience measures, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 1294, 39–48, 2013. 
Aerts, J. C. J. H., Botzen, W. J. W., Emanuel, K., Lin, N., de Moel, H., and Michel-Kerjan, E. O.: Evaluating flood resilience strategies for coastal megacities, Science, 344, 473–5,, 2014. 
Bos, A. J.: Optimal safety level for the New Orleans East polder; A preliminary risk analysis, VU Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2008. 
Bouwman, A. F., Kram, T., and Klein Goldewijk, K.: Integrated modelling of global environmental change: an overview of Image 2.4, available at: (last access: 14 April 2020), 2006. 
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The requested paper has a corresponding corrigendum published. Please read the corrigendum first before downloading the article.

Short summary
We present a framework to evaluate the benefits and costs of coastal adaptation through dikes to reduce future flood risk. If no adaptation takes place, we find that global coastal flood risk increases 150-fold by 2080, with sea-level rise contributing the most. Moreover, 15 countries account for 90 % of this increase; that adaptation shows high potential to cost-effectively reduce flood risk. The results will be integrated into the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer web tool.
Final-revised paper