The paper discusses the use of rockfall modelling software and photogrammetry applied to images acquired by RPAS to provide support to civil protection agencies during emergency response. The paper focuses on a procedure that was applied to define the residual rockfall risk for a road that was hit by an earthquake-triggered rockfall that occurred during the seismic sequence that hit central Italy on 24 August 2016. Road reopening conditions were decided based on the results of this study.
We investigate the source of the 1761 earthquake and tsunami. The reanalysis of the tsunami travel times agrees with an earlier suggested source area. We check the geodynamic setting of the area and place a fault as an extension to an identified fault and use numerical modelling to distinguish between two candidate sources. One of our theories is compatible with the geodynamic setting and reproduces well the observed tsunami parameters.
Bangladesh, one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, has a dynamic delta with 123 polders. Cyclone-induced storm surges cause severe damage to these polders. This paper presents an investigation of the inundation pattern in a polder due to dike failure caused by storm surges and identifies possible critical locations of dike breaches. Moreover, the risk of flooding was assessed and probabilistic flood maps were generated for the breaching of dikes.
In 1958, at Lituya Bay in Alaska, the largest tsunami wave ever recorded took place. Since then, its numerical simulation has been a challenge and no numerical model has been able to reproduce, in the real geometry of the bay, the more than 200 m wave and the extreme run-up (climbing of the water up on land) of 524 m. The aim of our research, in the framework of a collaboration between the University of Malága (Spain) and NOAA (US), was to fulfil this gap at the same time as verifying our model.
Rip currents are the greatest hazard to swimmers at surf beaches, but studies of the percentage of rescues and number of drownings attributable to rip currents have reached varying conclusions. This study uses rescue data reported to the United States Lifesaving Association by surf beach rescuers to show that rip currents are the primary cause of an average of more than 80 % of surf rescues, and to estimate that, they are the primary contributor to over 100 drowning deaths annually in the US.
A methodology is proposed for the quantitative risk assessment of roadways subjected to rockfalls, retaining wall failures, and slow moving landslides. It includes the calculation of the probability of occurrence of each hazard with a given level, based on an extensive collection of field data, and its association with the consequences. The latter was assessed considering the road damage repair cost for each level in terms of a fixed unit cost.
Rainfall intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves are used as the basis for water resource infrastructure design. Given intensification of the hydrological cycle with global warming, quantitative information on the future extreme rainfall hazard is needed by practitioners. Projected changes in annual maximum rainfall in high-resolution regional climate model simulations result in IDF curves that shift upward and steepen, with greater intensification at short durations and long return periods.
We developed statistical models simulating the probability of large wildfires in France from the climate forcing. The models were able to reproduce both spatial and temporal variability in large wildfires across different environmental regions. The models have wide applications, including improving our understanding of the drivers of large wildfires over the historical period and providing a basis on which to estimate future changes to large wildfires from climate projections.