Application and reliability of techniques for landslide site investigation, monitoring and early warning – outcomes from a questionnaire study
- 1Geological Survey of Austria, Neulinggasse 38, 1030 Vienna, Austria
- *present address: Working Group on Karst and Caves, Department of Geology and Paleontology, Museum of Natural History, Museumsplatz 1/10, 1070 Vienna, Austria
Abstract. The presented questionnaire study summarizes an evaluation of approaches, techniques and parameters of slope-instability investigation and monitoring of their occurrence, reliability and the applicability of the monitoring techniques for early warning. The study is based on information collected from 86 monitored landslides in 14 European and Asian countries. Based on the responses, lidar ALS (airborne laser scanners), geophysical logging, aerial photographs, resistivity surveying, GB InSAR (ground-based synthetic aperture radar interferometer) and the refraction seismic were considered the most reliable methods for investigation of structure and character of landslides. Especially lidar ALS and geophysical logging were ranked high despite their application at relatively few landslides. Precipitation amount, pore-water pressure and displacement monitored by wire extensometers, dGPS and total stations, followed by air temperature and EM-emissions monitoring and displacement monitored by the TM 71 crack gauge were considered the most promising parameters for early warning.