New tsunami damage functions developed in the framework of SCHEMA project: application to European-Mediterranean coasts
Abstract. In the framework of the European SCenarios for tsunami Hazard-induced Emergencies MAnagement (SCHEMA) project (www.schemaproject.org), we empirically developed new tsunami damage functions to be used for quantifying the potential tsunami damage to buildings along European-Mediterranean coasts.
Since no sufficient post-tsunami observations exist in the Mediterranean areas, we based our work on data collected by several authors in Banda Aceh (Indonesia) after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Obviously, special attention has been paid in focusing on Indonesian buildings which present similarities (in structure, construction material, number of storeys) with the building typologies typical of the European-Mediterranean areas.
An important part of the work consisted in analyzing, merging, and interpolating the post-disaster observations published by three independent teams in order to obtain the spatial distribution of flow depths necessary to link the flow-depth hazard parameter to the damage level observed on buildings. Then we developed fragility curves (showing the cumulative probability to have, for each flow depth, a damage level equal-to or greater-than a given threshold) and damage curves (giving the expected damage level) for different classes of buildings. It appears that damage curves based on the weighted mean damage level and the maximum flow depth are the most appropriate for producing, under GIS, expected damage maps for different tsunami scenarios.