Special issue |
Situational sea awareness technologies for maritime safety and marine environment protection
Editor(s): N. Pinardi, I. Federico, A. Olita, P. Marra, and R. ArchettiMore information
Situational sea awareness (SSA) is a field of applied oceanography that relies on operational oceanographic products (analyses, re-analyses and forecasts) to inform users about environmental conditions at sea, including early warning for marine extremes and hazards. The key is to develop information technologies capable of disseminating user-oriented information that is based upon rapidly changing data from wind, waves and current forecasts. Situational sea awareness is useful for all maritime operations, from ship routing to search and rescue, offshore hydrocarbon exploration and fisheries, where the knowledge of the environmental conditions is required to carry out operations at sea safely and efficiently. The environmental data of interest are the meteo-oceanographic analyses and forecasts as well as the related positions of objects and substances in the whole water column.
Giovanni Coppini, Palmalisa Marra, Rita Lecci, Nadia Pinardi, Sergio Cretì, Mario Scalas, Luca Tedesco, Alessandro D'Anca, Leopoldo Fazioli, Antonio Olita, Giuseppe Turrisi, Cosimo Palazzo, Giovanni Aloisio, Sandro Fiore, Antonio Bonaduce, Yogesh Vittal Kumkar, Stefania Angela Ciliberti, Ivan Federico, Gianandrea Mannarini, Paola Agostini, Roberto Bonarelli, Sara Martinelli, Giorgia Verri, Letizia Lusito, Davide Rollo, Arturo Cavallo, Antonio Tumolo, Tony Monacizzo, Marco Spagnulo, Rorberto Sorgente, Andrea Cucco, Giovanni Quattrocchi, Marina Tonani, Massimiliano Drudi, Paola Nassisi, Laura Conte, Laura Panzera, Antonio Navarra, and Giancarlo Negro
SeaConditions aims to support the users by providing the environmental information in due time and with adequate accuracy in the marine and coastal environments, enforcing users' sea situational awareness. SeaConditions consists of a web and mobile application for the provision of meteorological and oceanographic observation and forecasting products. The iOS/Android apps were downloaded by more than 105 000 users and more than 100 000 users have visited the web version (www.sea-conditions.com).
EMODnet initiative aims to provide access to European marine data in an interoperable and free of restrictions way. EMODnet Chemistry lot focuses on the fulfillment of EU MSFD and INSPIRE directives requirements to assess eutrophication and contaminants. It could play two main roles: provide standardized and quality-checked buffers of data for specific regions and act as an umbrella for standards, best practices, and infrastructure to aggregate at regional level the single member states.
Alessandro D'Anca, Laura Conte, Paola Nassisi, Cosimo Palazzo, Rita Lecci, Sergio Cretì, Marco Mancini, Alessandra Nuzzo, Maria Mirto, Gianandrea Mannarini, Giovanni Coppini, Sandro Fiore, and Giovanni Aloisio
Updated situational sea awareness requires an advanced technological system to make data available for decision makers, improving the capacity of intervention and supporting users in managing emergency situations due to natural hazards. The TESSA data platform meets the request of near-real-time access to heterogeneous data with different accuracy, resolution or degrees of aggregation providing efficient and secure data access and strong support to operational oceanographic high-level services.
Hindcasted wave data were used to define proper environmental conditions at sea, with the aim of estimating the design conditions of an innovative quay wall concept.
The results of a computational fluid dynamics model are used to optimise the design of a non-reflective quay wall of Vlorë Harbour.
The proposed method based on numerical modelling allows for the identification of the best site-specific solution and for a location devoid of any wave measurements.
SANIFS (Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian coastal Forecasting System) is a coastal-ocean operational system based on the unstructured grid finite-element three-dimensional hydrodynamic SHYFEM model, which provides short-term forecasts. The operational chain is based on a downscaling approach starting from the large-scale system for the entire Mediterranean Basin (MFS, Mediterranean Forecasting System), which provides initial and boundary condition fields for the nested system.
Surface analytical methods (the electrochemical method and atomic force microscopy imaging) are applied to examine good environmental status of seawaters. The present overview emphasize advantages of combining surface analytical methods applied for hazardous situation in the Adriatic Sea such as monitoring of the first aggregation phases of dissolved organic matter in order to potentially predict the massive mucilage formation and testing of oil spill cleanup.
A new web-based and mobile Decision Support System (DSS) for Search-And-Rescue (SAR) at sea is presented, and its performance is evaluated using real case scenarios. The system, named OCEAN-SAR, is accessible via the website http://www.ocean-sar.com. OCEAN-SAR simulates drifting objects at sea, using as input ocean currents and wind. The performance of the service is evaluated by comparing simulations to data from the Italian Coast Guard pertaining to actual incidents in the Mediterranean Sea.
Nadia Pinardi, Vladyslav Lyubartsev, Nicola Cardellicchio, Claudio Caporale, Stefania Ciliberti, Giovanni Coppini, Francesca De Pascalis, Lorenzo Dialti, Ivan Federico, Marco Filippone, Alessandro Grandi, Matteo Guideri, Rita Lecci, Lamberto Lamberti, Giuliano Lorenzetti, Paolo Lusiani, Cosimo Damiano Macripo, Francesco Maicu, Michele Mossa, Diego Tartarini, Francesco Trotta, Georg Umgiesser, and Luca Zaggia
A multiscale sampling experiment was carried out in the Gulf of Taranto (eastern Mediterranean) providing the first synoptic evidence of the large-scale circulation structure and associated mesoscale variability. The circulation is shown to be dominated by an anticyclonic gyre and upwelling areas at the gyre periphery.
In this paper, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model was coupled to a biological model to simulate the ecological system of the East China Sea. In addition, the sensitive experiments were also used to examine the role of physical forcing (river discharge, wind speed, wind direction) in controlling hypoxia in waters adjacent the Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that the wind field and river discharge have significant impact on the hypoxia off the Yangtze Estuary.
The present work describes an operational strategy for the development of a multiscale modeling system, based on a multiple–nesting approach and open–source numerical models. The strategy was applied and validated for the Gulf of Taranto in southern Italy, scaling large–scale oceanographic model results to high–resolution coupled-wave 3-D hydrodynamics simulations for the area of Mar Grande in Taranto. The spatial and temporal high-resolution simulations were performed using the open source.
This study shows the capability of the numerical model in reproducing the trophic index (TRIX) calculated from in situ data. The ecosystem simulations can represent an important support for monitoring activities, allowing the use of TRIX to be extended to larger areas where in situ sampling activities are difficult to implement. The model TRIX was calculated for the whole Adriatic Sea, showing trophic differences across the Adriatic Sea.
An innovative fully operational 24/7 web-based decision support system, WITOIL (Where Is The Oil), has been developed to support oil pollution response. The system meets the real-time requirements in terms of performance and dynamic service delivery. Comprehensive computational resources and network bandwidth efficiently support the multi-user regime. The eight-language graphical user interface incorporates a great variety of user services, e.g., help and support, tooltips, and video tutorials.
Meteocean and environmental forecasting is increasingly being used in operational decision-making in the sea for demographic, geographic and strategic applications. It also used to force the stochastic models used for search and rescue planning. The stochastic models have many limitations relating to the leeway calculation, and we tried to overcome them; we hope to contribute by providing leeway drift formulae for practical use.
In this work we developed a new multi-model super-ensemble method to estimate sea surface temperature, an important product of ocean analysis systems. We find that ensemble size, quality, type of members and the training period length are all important elements of the MMSE methodology and require careful calibration. We show that with a rather limited but overconfident data set (with a low bias of the starting ensemble members) the RMSE analysis can be improved.
Safety and efficiency of navigation can be enhanced through a better situational awareness at sea. We designed and realized an operational infrastructure for providing the navigators with optimal routes through various devices: PC, tablets, and smartphones. Sea-state and wind forecasts are used as inputs. Both motor- and sailboat routes are addressed by VISIR.
In March 2014, a commercial airliner vanished without a trace. The main wreckage of the plane was never recovered, except for some small parts that washed up more than 17 months after the disappearance. In this paper we show a method to model the most likely trajectories of floating debris from the aircraft. The results show that the assumed area of the crash site is compatible with the recovered debris and predict that further debris may be found along the African east coast.
This paper examined the performances of two operational ocean forecasting systems, Mercator Océan in France and SCSOFS in China, based on observed satellite and in situ data obtained in 2012. The comparison and validation are focused on the ocean circulations, the structures of temperature and salinity, and some mesoscale activities in the South China Sea. Finally, some recommendations have been proposed for both systems to improve their performances in the near future.
This work explored the importance of considering the tidal dynamics when modelling the general circulation in the Messina Strait, a narrow passage connecting the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian Sea sub-basins in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The results highlight that tidal dynamics deeply impact the reproduction of the instantaneous and residual circulation pattern, waters thermohaline properties and transport dynamics both inside the Messina Strait and in the surrounding coastal and open waters.
This work presents the comparison of two modelling suites (TELEMAC, MIKE21) in fundamental wave-hydrodynamics applications, and proposes a multiparametric approach for the rapid assessment of wave conditions in coastal zones. Study areas for all applications are located in South Italy. Analysis shows an overall satisfactory agreement between the two suites and provides useful insights on their capabilities, while the proposed approach was successfully implemented as part of an operational chain.