3-D HOS simulations of extreme waves in open seas
Abstract. In the present paper we propose a method for studying extreme-wave appearance based on the Higher-Order Spectral (HOS) technique proposed by West et al. (1987) and Dommermuth and Yue (1987). The enhanced HOS model we use is presented and validated on test cases. Investigations of freak-wave events appearing within long-time evolutions of 2-D and 3-D wavefields in open seas are then realized, and the results are discussed. Such events are obtained in our periodic-domain HOS model by using different kinds of configurations: either i) we impose an initial 3-D directional spectrum with the phases adjusted so as to form a focused forced event after a while, or ii) we let 2-D and 3-D wavefields defined by a directional wave spectrum evolve up to the natural appearance of freak waves. Finally, we investigate the influence of directionality on extreme wave events with an original study of the 3-D shape of the detected freak waves.