CONTINUITY EQUATION Fluid FlowFigure 2 Pascal’s LawControlVolumeIn thermodynamics, a control volume was defined as a fixed region in space where one studiesthe masses and energies crossing the boundaries of the region. This concept of a control volumeis also very useful in analyzing fluid flow problems. The boundary of a control volume for fluidflow is usually taken as the physical boundary of the part through which the flow is occurring.The control volume concept is used in fluid dynamics applications, utilizing the continuity,momentum, and energy principles mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. Once the controlvolume and its boundary are established, the various forms of energy crossing the boundary withthe fluid can be dealt with in equation form to solve the fluid problem. Since fluid flowproblems usually treat a fluid crossing the boundaries of a control volume, the control volumeapproach is referred to as an "open" system analysis, which is similar to the concepts studied inthermodynamics. There are special cases in the nuclear field where fluid does not cross thecontrol boundary. Such cases are studied utilizing the "closed" system approach.Regardless of the nature of the flow, all flow situations are found to be subject to the establishedbasic laws of nature that engineers have expressed in equation form. Conservation of mass andconservation of energy are always satisfied in fluid problems, along with Newton’s laws ofmotion. In addition, each problem will have physical constraints, referred to mathematically asboundary conditions, that must be satisfied before a solution to the problem will be consistentwith the physical results.HT-03 Page 8 Rev. 0

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