This paper evaluates the effect of surge water level reduction due to land surface characteristics when assessing flood impacts at global scales. Our results show that uncertainties due to not accounting for water attenuation are of similar magnitude to the uncertainties regarding the total amount of sea-level rise expected by 2100, thus highlighting the need for better understanding of the spatial and temporal variation of water levels across floodplains.
In recent years, earthquakes have been occurring in Korea where no earthquakes occurred in the past. Appropriate response planning using simulations in countries with less earthquake risk management experiences are needed. It is especially important to evaluate earthquake damage financially. This paper is a model study for urban earthquake risk management and meaningfully generates basic data for a cost benefit analysis of a disaster prevention plan by financial evaluation of earthquake damage.
The Karakoram Highway (KKH) is an important physical connection between Pakistan and China. Landslides have been a major threat to its stability since its construction. After the announcement of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), KKH has had more importance. Geoscientists from research institutions in both countries are assessing landslide hazard and risk along the highway. In a PhD project, this paper will be followed by a detailed analysis of mass movements along the highway.
Convective systems producing severe winds occasionally affect Europe during wintertime and the majority of these storms develop along well-defined cold fronts of extratropical cyclones. However, on 3 January 2014, a storm formed in a postfrontal air mass over western Europe. This study analyses the prevailing environmental conditions and the predictability of this storm. Our results reveal the difficulty of forecasting cold-season convective storms when they are not associated with a cold front.
Floods affect many communities and cause a large amount of damage worldwide.
Since we choose to live in natural flood plains and are unable to prevent all floods, a system of insurance and reinsurance was set up.
For these institutes to not fail, estimates are required of the frequency of large-scale flood events.
We explore a new method to obtain a large catalogue of synthetic, spatially coherent, large-scale river discharge events, using a recent (gridded) European discharge data set.
Long-term georeferenced time series showed spatiotemporal variations in large fires (LF ≥ 100 ha) throughout the French Mediterranean with 21 % of the total LF burned area occurring on surface previously burned. The region was impacted up to five to six times by recurrent LFs, the east experiencing fewer but larger LFs despite fire weather conditions decreasing eastwards. The efficiency of fire management has improved but LF outbreaks during extreme weather conditions remain a major concern.
This study investigates coastal sea level variability and extremes
around Australia, taking into account historical conditions and future
atmospheric changes. Modelling suggests changes in future extreme sea levels may occur. A southward movement of the subtropical ridge leads to reduced sea level extremes in many areas, while changes over the Gulf of Carpentaria are largest and positive during austral summer in two of four simulations, likely associated with changes in the northwest monsoon.
Growing trees are vulnerable to cold temperatures. Fruit trees stop their growth during the coldest months of the year until meeting a required cold accumulation, specific for each tree species and variety. Under global warming, a reduction in cold accumulation in Spain is projected. This threatens the viability of some current tree crops and varieties in some areas, but other varieties with less requirements can be used. Our results allow adaptation of tree plantations to climate change.
Rockfall boulders can travel long distances downslope, and it is important to predict how far fatalities can be prevented. A comparison of earthquake data from New Zealand during summer and full-scale rockfall experiments in the same soil during winter shows that during dry seasons boulders travel further downslope because the soil is harder. When using predictive tools, engineers and geologists should take soil conditions (and seasonal variations thereof) into account.