24 Feb 2022
24 Feb 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal NHESS.

Time-dependent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis for Western Sumatra, Indonesia, Using Space-Time Earthquake Rupture Modelling and Stochastic Source Scenarios

Ario Muhammad1,2, Katsuichiro Goda3, and Maximilian J. Werner2 Ario Muhammad et al.
  • 1Civil Engineering Department, President University, Bekasi, 17530, Indonesia
  • 2School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR, UK
  • 3Department of Earth Sciences, Western University, London, N6G 2V4, Canada

Abstract. We develop a novel framework of time-dependent probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) and apply it to Western Sumatra, Indonesia, where future tsunamigenic events are anticipated in the Mentawai region of the Sunda subduction zone. An earthquake rupture model taking into account the spatiotemporal interaction of major megathrust segments is used to simulate future tsunamigenic earthquakes. The earthquake rupture process of the segments is characterized by a multivariate Bernoulli model with interarrival times following a Brownian passage‐time distribution and the dependency between segments specified by a spatial correlation function. We calibrate this model with historical ruptures of the Mentawai thrust in the last 450 years. A total of ≥ 100,000 time-dependent earthquake rupture cases are then coupled with a stochastic tsunami simulation method to evaluate tsunami hazards. We generate a total of 6,300 stochastic tsunami source models from six magnitude scenarios between M 7.75 and M 9.0 and obtain time-dependent PTHA results for seven different periods (1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 450 years). We further compare the time-dependent PTHA results with a time-independent PTHA approach to investigate the influence of the spatiotemporal earthquake rupture model. The space-time interaction model successfully generates annual seismic moment rates consistent with the observations. Moreover, the model can capture the uncertainty of future time-dependent tsunami hazards. On the other hand, the time-independent approach produces slightly higher hazard estimates than the time-dependent model for long-term hazard assessments (> 450 years).

Ario Muhammad et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2022-59', Anonymous Referee #1, 18 Mar 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Ario Muhammad, 19 Jul 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2022-59', Anonymous Referee #2, 21 Mar 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Ario Muhammad, 19 Jul 2022
  • RC3: 'Comment on nhess-2022-59', Anonymous Referee #3, 23 Mar 2022
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC3', Ario Muhammad, 19 Jul 2022

Ario Muhammad et al.

Ario Muhammad et al.


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Short summary
This study develops a novel framework of time-dependent (TD) probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) combining a total of ≥ 100,000 spatiotemporal earthquakes (EQ) rupture models and 6,300 probabilistic tsunami simulations to evaluate the tsunami hazards and compare them with the time-independent (TI) PTHA results. The proposed model can capture the uncertainty of future TD tsunami hazards and produces slightly higher hazard estimates than the TI model for short-term periods (< 30 years).