Mechanisms, such as flow shear erosion, impinging jet erosion, side slope erosion and cantilever collapse, were discovered in the overtopping breaching process of cohesive levees. The levee breaching flow rates were simulated by a depth-averaged 2-D flow model. The calculated overflow rates can be well expressed by the broad-crested weir flow formula. The deduced discharge coefficient was smaller than that of common broad-crested rectangular weirs.
This work explored the importance of considering the tidal dynamics when modelling the general circulation in the Messina Strait, a narrow passage connecting the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian Sea sub-basins in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The results highlight that tidal dynamics deeply impact the reproduction of the instantaneous and residual circulation pattern, waters thermohaline properties and transport dynamics both inside the Messina Strait and in the surrounding coastal and open waters.
Future sea level rise is inevitable. We investigate the effects of 2 m sea level rise on the island of Gotland, Sweden. In a multi-criteria analysis we analyze the quantity of infrastructure that will be inundated, and the effect of saltwater intrusion in wells. Almost 100 km2 (3 %) of Gotland's land area will be inundated. Important touristic and nature values will be strongest affected. Well salinization will greatly increase. Administrative planning is needed to prepare for changes.
The study establishes the first local reference frame for the Gulf of Mexico region using the observations from 13 GNSS sites. The root mean square (RMS) of the velocities of the 13 reference stations achieves 0.2 mm yr−1 in the horizontal and 0.3 mm yr−1 in the vertical directions. Land subsidence, faulting, and salt dome activities in the Houston region, Mexico City, and the southeastern Louisiana region are discussed and compared.
We present a disaster forensics methodology: the post-event review capability (PERC), which responds to a need for learning about the successes and failures in disaster risk management (DRM) and resilience, uncovers the underlying drivers of increasing risk and makes actionable recommendations. We analyse seven PERC reports and find that across the globe policy makers and practitioners in DRM face strikingly similar challenges. These lessons highlight the importance of integrated risk reduction.
We report that a considerable increase in flood-related losses can be expected in Germany in a future warmer climate. The general significance of the study is supported by the fact that the outcome of an ensemble of global climate models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) was used as a climate driver for a hydrological model considering more than 3000 river basins in Germany.
In March 2014, a commercial airliner vanished without a trace. The main wreckage of the plane was never recovered, except for some small parts that washed up more than 17 months after the disappearance. In this paper we show a method to model the most likely trajectories of floating debris from the aircraft. The results show that the assumed area of the crash site is compatible with the recovered debris and predict that further debris may be found along the African east coast.
Thin coastal dykes found in developing countries may suddenly collapse due to land subsidence, material ageing, earthquakes, a collision with vessels, etc. Such a failure could trigger a dyke-break-induced tsunami. To analyse the potential consequences of such a flooding event, a hydrodynamic model was created using the data from the authors' field surveys of a vulnerable coastal community in Jakarta. The countermeasure of using mangrove forest is also proposed to mitigate violent floods.
This paper examined the performances of two operational ocean forecasting systems, Mercator Océan in France and SCSOFS in China, based on observed satellite and in situ data obtained in 2012. The comparison and validation are focused on the ocean circulations, the structures of temperature and salinity, and some mesoscale activities in the South China Sea. Finally, some recommendations have been proposed for both systems to improve their performances in the near future.
Rockfall hazard zoning analyses can be based on qualitative observations. For this reason, expertise is of great importance in determining the hazard. To test this hypothesis, an experiment is proposed to evaluate the importance of subjective assessment: three populations with different level of expertise assessed the level of rockfall hazard on three sites using a qualitative and a quantitative method. A statistical analysis shows that there is a non-significant influence of the level of expertise.
Here, we aim to better understand the potential for using video games in volcanic hazard education with at-risk communities. A study using a bespoke-designed video game – St. Vincent's Volcano – was trialled on the Caribbean island of St. Vincent in 2015. Preliminary data analysis demonstrates 94 % of study participants had an improved knowledge of volcanic hazards after playing the game, leading us to conclude that video games could be a logical progression for education and outreach activities.
This study has the aim of reviewing the dynamics of debris flow impact against rigid structures and providing a new simple formulation to predict peak thrust. The proposed equation differs from other formulations because it takes into account flow characteristics, material properties, and barrier dimensions. The developed model is sufficiently capable of predicting measured force during the laboratory tests.
This article presents a method to incorporate and promote quantitative flood risk analysis to support local action planning against flooding. The conducted research work aims at providing a framework for local flood risk analysis and to support risk-informed decision-making (e.g. urban planning and development, flood risk management, civil protection). This article shows the added value of a risk-informed perspective, applied to a real case study in Spain.