Prediction of the date, magnitude and affected area of impending strong earthquakes using integration of multi precursors earthquake parameters
Abstract. Usually a precursor alone might not be useful as an accurate, precise, and stand-alone criteria for the earthquake parameters prediction. Therefore it is more appropriate to exploit parameters extracted from a variety of individual precursors so that their simultaneous integration would reduce the parameters's uncertainty.
In our previous studies, five strong earthquakes which happened in the Samoa Islands, Sichuan (China), L'Aquila (Italy), Borujerd (Iran) and Zarand (Iran) have been analyzed to locate unusual variations in the time series of the different earthquake precursors. In this study, we have attempted to estimate earthquake parameters using the detected anomalies in the mentioned case studies.
Using remote sensing observations, this study examines variations of electron and ion density, electron temperature, total electron content (TEC), electric and magnetic fields and land surface temperature (LST) several days before the studied earthquakes. Regarding the ionospheric precursors, the geomagnetic indices Dst and Kp were used to distinguish pre-earthquake disturbed states from the other anomalies related to the geomagnetic activities.
The inter-quartile range of data was utilized to construct their upper and lower bound to detect disturbed states outsides the bounds which might be associated with impending earthquakes.
When the disturbed state associated with an impending earthquake is detected, based on the type of precursor, the number of days relative to the earthquake day is estimated. Then regarding the deviation value of the precursor from the undisturbed state the magnitude of the impending earthquake is estimated. The radius of the affected area is calculated using the estimated magnitude and Dobrovolsky formula.
In order to assess final earthquake parameters (i.e. date, magnitude and radius of the affected area) for each case study, the earthquake parameters obtained from different earthquake precursors were integrated. In other words, for each case study using the median and inter-quartile range of earthquake parameters, the bounds of the final earthquake parameters were defined. For each studied case, a close agreement was found between the estimated and registered earthquake parameters.