30 Mar 2023
 | 30 Mar 2023
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal NHESS.

Local perception and adaptation strategies to landslide occurrence in the Kivu catchment of Rwanda

Ma-Lyse Nema, Bachir Saley Mahaman, Arona Diedhiou, and Assiel Mugabe

Abstract. This study aims to assess local perception and adaptation strategies to landslide occurrences in the Kivu catchment of Rwanda. Qualitative, quantitative, and combined methods were applied for data collection to investigate how the locals perceived the types of landslides, origins, impacts, contributing variables to landslides, and adaptation strategies to landslides. The investigation conducted interviews with 384 residents from the six districts of the study area, key informant interviews and field observations. The findings showed that falls, flows, slides and spreads are the types of landslides frequently occurring in the study area. Heavy rain, steep slope, road construction, inappropriate agriculture practices, deforestation, earthquake, and mining were found to cause landslides with effects such as human fatalities, infrastructure damage, injuries, and property losses. Different measures are adopted for landslide risk reduction, including agroforestry, terracing, stormwater drainage systems, and relocating people from high-risk areas. Residents have a positive opinion of their community’s approach to managing landslides effectively. However, the findings revealed gaps in cooperation between the parties where Non-Governmental Organizations do not appear to be active participants during intervention activities for landslide management in the study area. Regression analysis has shown that deforestation, inappropriate agricultural practices, roads construction, earthquakes, and climate change are the key factors significantly contributing to landslide occurrences in the study area. Further research must be conducted on the subject using a variety of methodologies, notably those related to applied artificial intelligence in order to enrich the literature presently available on landslides in the Kivu catchment of Rwanda.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Ma-Lyse Nema, Bachir Saley Mahaman, Arona Diedhiou, and Assiel Mugabe

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2023-47', Anonymous Referee #1, 05 Jun 2023
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Ma-Lyse Nema, 16 Jun 2023
  • CC1: 'Comment on nhess-2023-47', Blaise Mafuko Nyandwi, 10 Jun 2023
    • AC2: 'Reply on CC1', Ma-Lyse Nema, 21 Jun 2023
      • CC5: 'Reply on AC2', Blaise Mafuko Nyandwi, 21 Jun 2023
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2023-47', Anonymous Referee #2, 14 Jun 2023
    • CC4: 'Reply on RC2', Assiel MUGABE, 20 Jun 2023
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC2', Ma-Lyse Nema, 07 Aug 2023
  • RC3: 'Comment on nhess-2023-47', Ugur Ozturk, 14 Jun 2023
    • CC6: 'Reply on RC3', Ma-Lyse Nema, 03 Jul 2023
    • AC4: 'Reply on RC3', Ma-Lyse Nema, 07 Aug 2023
  • CC2: 'Comment on nhess-2023-47', Olivier Dewitte, 15 Jun 2023
    • CC3: 'Reply on CC2', Assiel MUGABE, 16 Jun 2023
Ma-Lyse Nema, Bachir Saley Mahaman, Arona Diedhiou, and Assiel Mugabe
Ma-Lyse Nema, Bachir Saley Mahaman, Arona Diedhiou, and Assiel Mugabe


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Short summary
My early experience inspired me to write this paper because I was always curious about the reasons behind the frequent landslides that occurred in the area where I was born. Now, my dream has come true because this study was centered on the same region, same people, and because I discovered the causes and preventative measures for landslides in my area. I hope that when establishing policies for disaster management in the study area, decision-makers will take these results into consideration.