Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2021-32
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2021-32
08 Feb 2021
 | 08 Feb 2021
Status: this preprint has been withdrawn by the authors.

GNSS and RPAS integration techniques for studying landslide dynamics: Application to the areas of Victoria and Colinas Lojanas, (Loja, Ecuador)

Belizario A. Zárate Torres, Rachid El Hamdouni, and Tomas Fernández del Castillo

Abstract. This research tests the application of GNSS and RPAS techniques to the spatiotemporal analysis of landslide dynamics. Our method began by establishing non-permanent GNSS networks on the slope surfaces to perform periodic measurements by differential GNSS. Similarly, RPAS flights were made to acquire high-resolution images, which were oriented and georeferenced using ground control points and structure-from-motion algorithms to obtain digital surface models and orthophotos ultimately. Based on GNSS measurements, the direction and velocity of displacements were accurately calculated, and orthophotos and DSMs were used to calculate horizontal and vertical displacements in a set of significant points throughout the study area, reaching accuracies higher than 0.035 m in the GNSS data and 0.10 m in the RPAS data. These values were within the accuracy required for such studies. Based on the field observations and the results from the photogrammetric studies, the two studied landslides were classified as very slow flows.

This preprint has been withdrawn.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Belizario A. Zárate Torres, Rachid El Hamdouni, and Tomas Fernández del Castillo

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2021-32 - Review', Anonymous Referee #1, 23 Feb 2021
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC1', Belizario Zarate, 21 Mar 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2021-32', Anonymous Referee #2, 01 Mar 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Belizario Zarate, 21 Mar 2021
  • RC3: 'Comment on nhess-2021-32 Review', Anonymous Referee #3, 01 Mar 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC3', Belizario Zarate, 21 Mar 2021

Interactive discussion

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2021-32 - Review', Anonymous Referee #1, 23 Feb 2021
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC1', Belizario Zarate, 21 Mar 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2021-32', Anonymous Referee #2, 01 Mar 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Belizario Zarate, 21 Mar 2021
  • RC3: 'Comment on nhess-2021-32 Review', Anonymous Referee #3, 01 Mar 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC3', Belizario Zarate, 21 Mar 2021
Belizario A. Zárate Torres, Rachid El Hamdouni, and Tomas Fernández del Castillo
Belizario A. Zárate Torres, Rachid El Hamdouni, and Tomas Fernández del Castillo

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Short summary
This study analyzes the dynamics of two landslides in the city of Loja – Ecuador using GNSS and RPAS techniques. GNSS technique allowed the measurement of horizontal and vertical displacements and the RPAS technique obtained high-resolution orthophotos and digital surface models. Models were oriented with ground control points. Based on the field information and the results obtained, the two landslides present low speeds and due to their behavior, they can be classified as very slow flows.
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