Tsunami impacts on- and offshore in the Andaman Sea region
Tsunami impacts on- and offshore in the Andaman Sea region
Editor(s): K. Schwarzer, S. Khokaittiwong, H. Sterr, and S. Tinti
As recently experienced in Japan, tsunamis represent one of the most important risk sources for low-lying coastal zones and their inhabitants, due to both their destructive potential and their unpredictability. The tsunami of 26 December 2004, which hit the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand, caused thousands of casualties, disrupted economies and social well-being in many coastal communities and resulted in drastic changes of the coastal zone and marine environment. This tsunami also revealed a gap in scientific knowledge, beginning from the triggering of tsunamis offshore to the various impacts to the natural environments on the shelf, coastal areas and on land and to the economic and social system consequences. An interdisciplinary Thai–German research project ("TRIAS" – Tracing Tsunami Impacts On- and Offshore in the Andaman Sea Region) was launched, addressing the following topics:

  • Where and how can tsunamis be triggered in the Andaman Sea and what are the indicators of tsunami-generating mechanisms?
  • How often have tsunamis struck the coast of the Andaman Sea in the recent past and how does sedimentary evidence on- and offshore look?
  • What are the impacts of tsunamis on the seafloor morphology, sediment cover and on the marine and littoral ecosystems?
  • How is tsunami wave energy attenuated in the nearshore zone, beachfront and hinterland, and how is this attenuation influenced by the presence of natural barriers such as coastal forests and artificial barriers?
  • What factors determine the tsunami-related vulnerability of low-lying coastal areas, their population, communities and economies?
  • What kind of socio-economic, institutional and/or other factors make coastal societies or communities resilient against tsunami impacts, and how can risk management, including early warning, be improved to prevent/mitigate future tsunami disasters along coasts?
The questions above provided a feasible basis for addressing key issues of tsunami research. While in the offshore domain natural processes dominate, towards onshore and especially on-land anthropogenic influences increase and trigger the vulnerability. Consequently, individual research groups have established a research network to contribute to the enhancement of the region's ability to cope with tsunami risks.

The objective of this special issue is to complement individual research issues in such a way that a clear picture can be drawn about the destructive forces and processes of the 2004 tsunami and past tsunamis and to elaborate and to suggest measures on how to avoid or mitigate future tsunami impacts and destructions.

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12 Jun 2015
Internal structure of event layers preserved on the Andaman Sea continental shelf, Thailand: tsunami vs. storm and flash-flood deposits
D. Sakuna-Schwartz, P. Feldens, K. Schwarzer, S. Khokiattiwong, and K. Stattegger
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1181–1199, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-1181-2015,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-15-1181-2015, 2015
05 Dec 2013
Mapping tsunami impacts on land cover and related ecosystem service supply in Phang Nga, Thailand
G. Kaiser, B. Burkhard, H. Römer, S. Sangkaew, R. Graterol, T. Haitook, H. Sterr, and D. Sakuna-Schwartz
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 3095–3111, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-13-3095-2013,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-13-3095-2013, 2013
05 Dec 2013
Sediment transport on the inner shelf off Khao Lak (Andaman Sea, Thailand) during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and former storm events: evidence from foraminiferal transfer functions
Y. Milker, M. Wilken, J. Schumann, D. Sakuna, P. Feldens, K. Schwarzer, and G. Schmiedl
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 3113–3128, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-13-3113-2013,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-13-3113-2013, 2013
25 Feb 2013
Tsunami damping by mangrove forest: a laboratory study using parameterized trees
A. Strusińska-Correia, S. Husrin, and H. Oumeraci
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 483–503, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-13-483-2013,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-13-483-2013, 2013
22 Aug 2012
Socio-economic vulnerability of coastal communities in southern Thailand: the development of adaptation strategies
P. Willroth, F. Massmann, R. Wehrhahn, and J. Revilla Diez
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 2647–2658, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-2647-2012,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-2647-2012, 2012
17 Aug 2012
Submarine mass wasting and associated tsunami risk offshore western Thailand, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean
J. M. Schwab, S. Krastel, M. Grün, F. Gross, P. Pananont, P. Jintasaeranee, S. Bunsomboonsakul, W. Weinrebe, and D. Winkelmann
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 2609–2630, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-2609-2012,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-2609-2012, 2012
12 Jul 2012
Local inundation distances and regional tsunami recurrence in the Indian Ocean inferred from luminescence dating of sandy deposits in Thailand
D. Brill, N. Klasen, K. Jankaew, H. Brückner, D. Kelletat, A. Scheffers, and S. Scheffers
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 2177–2192, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-2177-2012,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-2177-2012, 2012
28 Jun 2012
Potential of remote sensing techniques for tsunami hazard and vulnerability analysis – a case study from Phang-Nga province, Thailand
H. Römer, P. Willroth, G. Kaiser, A. T. Vafeidis, R. Ludwig, H. Sterr, and J. Revilla Diez
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 2103–2126, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-2103-2012,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-2103-2012, 2012
14 May 2012
Using Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a chemical proxy to indicate Tsunami 2004 backwash in Khao Lak coastal area, Thailand
D. Tipmanee, W. Deelaman, S. Pongpiachan, K. Schwarzer, and P. Sompongchaiyakul
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 1441–1451, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-1441-2012,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-1441-2012, 2012
09 Feb 2012
Brief communication "Seismic and acoustic-gravity signals from the source of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami"
A. Raveloson, R. Wang, R. Kind, L. Ceranna, and X. Yuan
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 287–294, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-287-2012,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-287-2012, 2012
11 Jan 2012
Reduction of tsunami inundation by coastal forests in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: a numerical study
W. Ohira, K. Honda, and K. Harada
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 85–95, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-85-2012,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-12-85-2012, 2012
22 Sep 2011
The influence of land cover roughness on the results of high resolution tsunami inundation modeling
G. Kaiser, L. Scheele, A. Kortenhaus, F. Løvholt, H. Römer, and S. Leschka
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 2521–2540, https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-11-2521-2011,https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-11-2521-2011, 2011
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