Articles | Volume 5, issue 3
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 5, 447–457, 2005
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 5, 447–457, 2005

  06 Jun 2005

06 Jun 2005

History and present state of the Slano Blato landslide

J. Logar1, K. Fifer Bizjak2, M. Kočevar3, M. Mikoš1, M. Ribičič4, and B. Majes1 J. Logar et al.
  • 1University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 2Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 3Geoinženiring, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 4University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technology, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Abstract. The Slano Blato landslide is more than 1290m long, 60 to 200m wide and 3 to 11m deep with a volume of about 700000m3. It is located in the Eocene flysch region of western Slovenia with a limestone overthrust in the direct vicinity, above the landslide. The landslide moves mainly as a viscous earth flow with occurrences of rapid mud flows. In dry periods or in freezing conditions it behaves as a group of several slow to moderate landslides. The landslide follows the course of the Grajšček stream and is presently only 220m away from Lokavec village. The landslide was first mentioned about 200 years ago. In 1887 it flowed as a liquid flow and reached and destroyed the main road in the valley 2 km away. The Austro-Hungarian monarchy sent one engineer to the site and 17 years later the slide was remediated with a series of torrential check dams. The monarchy prohibited any construction works in the influence area of the landslide. During the 20th century the region changed from Austrian, Italian, Yugoslav, and finally to Slovenian government in 1991. The relevant Austrian measures and decisions were forgotten during the course of the years, and building permits were issued after the World War II to local people who populated the part of the landslide influence area. Simultaneously, regular maintenance of the excellent past engineering works was neglected. In November 2000 a large landslide of mud and debris was triggered again and it still presents a danger to the relatively new residential houses today. At present, the village is protected against mudflows by a small rockfill dam and by the regulation of the stream bed. In rainy periods removal of mud is necessary to maintain safe conditions for the village. The paper discusses the geological, hydrogeological, hydrological and geotechnical conditions for the occurrence of the Slano Blato landslide. The primary reasons for the Slano blato landslide are the geological and hydrogeological conditions just beneath the overthrust of a Triassic limestone plateau over the Eocene flysch of Vipava valley. The direct reason for triggering the earth flow in 2000 was the intensive precipitation. During the course of years the precipitation threshold for earth flow movements has diminished. The landslide has to be remediated for two main reasons – (1) the village below the landslide is endangered, and (2) the landslide is still advancing retrogressively and laterally. The foreseen permanent remediation measures that are currently under construction are briefly presented.