Articles | Volume 17, issue 5
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 627–639, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-17-627-2017
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 627–639, 2017
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-17-627-2017

Research article 09 May 2017

Research article | 09 May 2017

Coseismic displacements of the 14 November 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura, New Zealand, earthquake using the Planet optical cubesat constellation

Andreas Kääb1, Bas Altena1, and Joseph Mascaro2 Andreas Kääb et al.
  • 1Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, 0316, Norway
  • 2Planet, San Francisco, 94103, USA

Abstract. Satellite measurements of coseismic displacements are typically based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry or amplitude tracking, or based on optical data such as from Landsat, Sentinel-2, SPOT, ASTER, very high-resolution satellites, or air photos. Here, we evaluate a new class of optical satellite images for this purpose – data from cubesats. More specific, we investigate the PlanetScope cubesat constellation for horizontal surface displacements by the 14 November 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura, New Zealand, earthquake. Single PlanetScope scenes are 2–4 m-resolution visible and near-infrared frame images of approximately 20–30 km  ×  9–15 km in size, acquired in continuous sequence along an orbit of approximately 375–475 km height. From single scenes or mosaics from before and after the earthquake, we observe surface displacements of up to almost 10 m and estimate matching accuracies from PlanetScope data between ±0.25 and ±0.7 pixels (∼ ±0.75 to ±2.0 m), depending on time interval and image product type. Thereby, the most optimistic accuracy estimate of ±0.25 pixels might actually be typical for the final, sun-synchronous, and near-polar-orbit PlanetScope constellation when unrectified data are used for matching. This accuracy, the daily revisit anticipated for the PlanetScope constellation for the entire land surface of Earth, and a number of other features, together offer new possibilities for investigating coseismic and other Earth surface displacements and managing related hazards and disasters, and complement existing SAR and optical methods. For comparison and for a better regional overview we also match the coseismic displacements by the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake using Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 data.

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Short summary
We evaluate for the first time a new class of optical satellite images for measuring Earth surface displacements due to earthquakes – images from cubesats. The PlanetScope cubesats used in this study are 10 cm × 10 cm × 30 cm small and standardized satellites. Around 120 of these cubesats orbit around Earth and are about to provide daily 2–4 m resolution images of the entire land surface of the Earth.
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