Quasi-synchronous multi-parameter anomalies associated with the 2010–2011 New Zealand earthquake sequence
- 1College of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing, China
- 2Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Ministry of Civil Affairs/Ministry of Education of P.R. China (Beijing Normal University), Beijing, China
- 3School of Environment Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
- 4Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome, Italy
- 5G. D'Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy
- 6China Earthquake Networks Center, Beijing, China
Abstract. Positive thermal anomalies about one month before the 3 September 2010 Mw = 7.1 New Zealand earthquake and "coincidental" quasi-synchronous fluctuations of GPS displacement were reported. Whether there were similar phenomena associated with the aftershocks? To answer it, the following was investigated: multiple parameters including surface and near-surface air temperature, surface latent heat flux, GPS displacement and soil moisture, using a long-term statistical analysis method. We found that local thermal and deformation anomalies appeared quasi-synchronously in three particular tectonic zones, not only about one month before the mainshock, but also tens of days before the 21 February 2011 Mw = 6.3 aftershock, and that the time series of soil moisture on the epicenter pixel had obvious peaks on most of the anomalous days. Based on local tectonic geology, hydrology and meteorology, the particular lithosphere-coversphere-atmosphere coupling mode is interpreted and four mechanisms (magmatic-hydrothermal fluids upwelling, soil moisture increasing, underground pore gases leaking, and positive holes activating and recombining) are discussed.