22 Jun 2022
22 Jun 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal NHESS.

Review Article: Wind and storm damage: From Meteorology to Impacts

Daniel Gliksman1,2, Paul Averbeck3, Nico Becker4,5, Barry Gardiner6,7, Valeri Goldberg1, Jens Grieger4, Dörthe Handorf8, Karsten Haustein9,a, Alexia Karwat10, Florian Knutzen9, Hilke S. Lentink11, Rike Lorenz4, Deborah Niermann12, Joaquim G. Pinto11, Ronald Queck1, Astrid Ziemann1, and Christian L. E. Franzke13,14 Daniel Gliksman et al.
  • 1Technische Universität Dresden, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Institute for Hydrology and Meteorology, Chair of Meteorology, Pienner Str. 23, 01737 Tharandt, Germany
  • 2Chair of Computational Landscape Ecology, Institute of Geography, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 10, 01069, Dresden, Germany
  • 3iES Landau, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau, Germany
  • 4Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Meteorologie, Berlin, Germany
  • 5Hans-Ertel-Centre for Weather Research, Berlin, Germany
  • 6Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany
  • 7Institut Européen de la Forêt Cultivée, Cestas, France
  • 8Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Research Department Potsdam, Telegrafenberg A45-ND-14473 Potsdam, Germany
  • 9Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), Helmholtz-Zentrum hereon, Fischertwiete 1, 20095 Hamburg, Germany
  • 10Universität Hamburg, Meteorological Institute, Grindelberg 5, 20144 Hamburg, Germany
  • 11Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Department of Tropospheric Research (IMK-TRO), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 12Deutscher Wetterdienst, Frankfurter Straße 135, 63067 Offenbach, Germany
  • 13Center for Climate Physics, Institute for Basic Science, Busan, Republic of Korea
  • 14Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea
  • anow at: Institute for Meteorology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

Abstract. Wind and windstorms cause severe damage to natural and human-made environments. Thus, wind-related risk assessment is vital for the preparation and mitigation of calamities. However, the cascade of events leading to damage depends on many factors that are environment-specific and the available methods to address wind-related damage often require sophisticated analysis and specialization. Fortunately, simple indices and thresholds are as effective as complex mechanistic models for many applications. Nonetheless, the multitude of indices and thresholds available requires a careful selection process according to the target environment. Here, we first provide a basic background on wind and storm formation and characteristics, followed by a comprehensive collection of both indices and thresholds that can be used to predict the occurrence and magnitude of wind and storm damage. We focused on five key environments: forests, urban, transport, agriculture, and wind-based energy production. For each environment we described indices and thresholds relating to physical properties such as topography and land cover but also to economic aspects (e.g. disruptions in transportation or energy production). In the face of increased climatic variability, the promotion of more effective analysis of wind and storm damage could reduce the impact on society and the environment.

Daniel Gliksman et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2022-159', Anonymous Referee #1, 11 Jul 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2022-159', Anonymous Referee #2, 06 Jan 2023

Daniel Gliksman et al.

Daniel Gliksman et al.


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Short summary
Wind and storms are a major natural hazard and can cause severe economic damages and cost human lives. Hence, it is important to gauge the potential impact of using indices which potentially enable us to estimate likely impacts of storms or other wind events. Here, we review basic aspects of wind and storm generation and provide an extensive overview of wind impacts and available indices. This is also important to better prepare for future climate change and corresponding changes to winds.