23 Mar 2021

23 Mar 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal NHESS.

Flood-pedestrian simulator for modelling human response dynamics during flood-induced evacuation: Hillsborough stadium case study   

Mohammad Shirvani and Georges Kesserwani Mohammad Shirvani and Georges Kesserwani
  • Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin St, Sheffield City Centre, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK

Abstract. The flood-pedestrian simulator uses a parallel approach to couple a hydrodynamic model to a pedestrian model in a single agent-based modelling (ABM) framework using the Graphical Processing Units (GPU). It allows to dynamically exchange and process multiple agent information between the two models. The simulator is augmented with more realistic human-body characteristics and in-model behavioural rules. The new features are implemented in the pedestrian model to factor in age- and gender-related walking speeds for the pedestrians in dry zones with possible acceleration based on a maximum excitement condition. It is also adapted to use age-related moving speeds for pedestrians inside flooded zones, with 13 either a walking condition or a running condition. The walking and running conditions are applicable without and with an existing two-way interaction condition that considers the effects of pedestrian congestion on the floodwater dynamics. A new autonomous change of direction condition is proposed to make way-finding decisions of pedestrians self-automated, based on the changes in the state of the floodwater dynamics or the most popular choice of destination selected by the other pedestrians. The relevance of the newly added characteristics and rules is demonstrated by applying the augmented simulator to reproduce a flood evacuation in a shopping centre test case, which was investigated with the version of the simulator that does not consider age and gender characteristics in the pedestrian model. The augmented simulator is finally applied to study evacuation scenarios for a mass evacuation from the Hillsborough football stadium located in a flood-prone area in Sheffield.

Mohammad Shirvani and Georges Kesserwani

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2021-79', Anonymous Referee #1, 19 Apr 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2021-79', Anonymous Referee #2, 24 Apr 2021
  • RC3: 'Comment on nhess-2021-79', Anonymous Referee #3, 28 May 2021
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC3', Georges Kesserwani, 21 Jun 2021

Mohammad Shirvani and Georges Kesserwani

Data sets

Outputs of the flood-pedestrian simulator applied to the flooded shopping centre and Hillsborough Stadium test cases M. Shirvani and G. Kesserwani

Model code and software

Flood-pedestrian simulator M. Shirvani and G. Kesserwani

Video supplement

Flood-pedestrian simulator video demos M. Shirvani

Mohammad Shirvani and Georges Kesserwani


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Short summary
Flooding in and around urban hubs can stress people. Immediate evacuation is a usual countermeasure taken at the onset of a flooding event. The flood-pedestrian simulator simulates evacuation of people prior and during a flood event. It provides information on the spatiotemporal responses of individuals, evacuation time and possible safe destination. This study demonstrates the simulator when considering more realistic human body and age characteristics and responses to floodwater.