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https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2020-370
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2020-370
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  03 Nov 2020

03 Nov 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal NHESS.

Mapping the adaptation solution space – lessons from Jakarta for other coastal cities

Mia Wannewitz and Matthias Garschagen Mia Wannewitz and Matthias Garschagen
  • Department of Geography, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, 80333 Munich, Germany

Abstract. Coastal cities are under increasing pressure to adapt to climate change. They suffer from the severe effects of increased frequencies and intensities of coastal hazards, particularly flooding, whilst oftentimes continuing to sprawl into hazard exposed areas and grow beyond the pace of sufficient infrastructure development. Even though these problems have been quite well understood for a while, there is still comparatively little knowledge on the solution space, i.e. on the options available for adaptation and the ways in which they are being perceived, framed and evaluated.

Focusing on Jakarta as one of the cities with the highest flood risk and adaptation pressure globally, this study presents findings from a systematic review of scientific English literature on mitigation options and the adaptation solution space to counter the city’s chronic flood problem. Results indicate that the perceived solution space is skewed towards protection against flooding, while soft adaptation options as well as measures to live with flooding or retreat from exposed areas are less widely considered. This appears to not only stem from the government’s traditional preference for engineered flood protection measures but also from a bias of scientific analyses towards focusing on understanding the hazard and analyzing engineered flood protection measures, while giving much less attention to soft adaptation options and community-led adaptation focusing among others on social and natural capital, empowerment and capacity building. Similarly, hybrid adaptation approaches, which combine soft and hard measures in a complementary way, are only rarely considered. Looking into the future, the findings suggest that a more integrative scientific approach would be helpful to populate and balance the considered solution space. Jakarta is one of the most heavily researched coastal cities worldwide and lessons from Jakarta are hence of global reach and importance. Future science on the city can play a significant role in piloting new approaches on the pressing frontiers in adaptation research. But increased attention is needed on current epistemic gaps.

Mia Wannewitz and Matthias Garschagen

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Mia Wannewitz and Matthias Garschagen

Mia Wannewitz and Matthias Garschagen

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Short summary
Focusing on Jakarta as a city with high flood risk and adaptation pressure, this study presents findings from a systematic literature review of mitigation options and the adaptation solution space to counter the city’s flood problem. Results indicate that the perceived solution space is skewed towards protection against flooding, while soft and hybrid adaptation options are less considered. This significantly influences flood risk management, influencing its effectiveness and sustainability.
Focusing on Jakarta as a city with high flood risk and adaptation pressure, this study presents...
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