Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2023-208
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2023-208
23 Jan 2024
 | 23 Jan 2024
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal NHESS.

Review article: Physical Vulnerability Database for Critical Infrastructure Multi-Hazard Risk Assessments – A systematic review and data collection

Sadhana Nirandjan, Elco E. Koks, Mengqi Ye, Raghav Pant, Kees C. H. van Ginkel, Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts, and Philip J. Ward

Abstract. Critical infrastructure (CI) is exposed to natural hazards that may lead to the devastation of these infrastructures and burden society with the indirect consequences that stem from this. The vulnerability is a key determinant for understanding, assessing and reducing natural hazard-induced risks to these infrastructures. To date, however, essential vulnerability information for CI is distributed across literature instead of being accessible through a centralized dataset. This study, through a systematic literature review, synthesises the state-of-the-art of fragility and vulnerability curves for CI assets of energy, transport, water, waste, telecoms, health and education in context of natural hazards and offers a unique physical vulnerability database. The publicly available centralized database that contains over 1,250 curves can directly be used as input for risk assessment studies that evaluate the expected or potential damages to assets due to flooding, earthquakes, windstorms and landslides. The literature review highlights that vulnerability development has mainly focused on earthquake curves for a wide range of infrastructure types. Windstorms have the second largest share in the database, but are especially limited to energy curves. While all CI systems require more vulnerability research, additional efforts are needed for telecommunication which is largely underrepresented in our database.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Sadhana Nirandjan, Elco E. Koks, Mengqi Ye, Raghav Pant, Kees C. H. van Ginkel, Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts, and Philip J. Ward

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2023-208', Anonymous Referee #1, 28 Feb 2024
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Sadhana Nirandjan, 22 Apr 2024
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2023-208', Anonymous Referee #2, 29 Feb 2024
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Sadhana Nirandjan, 22 Apr 2024
  • RC3: 'Comment on nhess-2023-208', Anonymous Referee #3, 07 Mar 2024
    • AC3: 'Reply on RC3', Sadhana Nirandjan, 22 Apr 2024
Sadhana Nirandjan, Elco E. Koks, Mengqi Ye, Raghav Pant, Kees C. H. van Ginkel, Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts, and Philip J. Ward

Data sets

Dataset: Physical Vulnerability Database for Critical Infrastructure Multi-Hazard Risk Assessments S. Nirandjan et al. https://zenodo.org/doi/10.5281/zenodo.10203845

Sadhana Nirandjan, Elco E. Koks, Mengqi Ye, Raghav Pant, Kees C. H. van Ginkel, Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts, and Philip J. Ward

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Short summary
Critical infrastructures (CI) are exposed to natural hazards, which may result in significant damage and burden society. The vulnerability is a key determinant for reducing these risks, yet crucial information is scattered in literature. Our study reviews over 1,250 fragility and vulnerability curves for CI assets, creating a unique publicly available physical vulnerability database that can directly be used for hazard risk assessments, including floods, earthquakes, windstorms and landslides.
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