17 Aug 2022
17 Aug 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal NHESS.

Warning Water Level Determination and its Spatial Distribution in Coastal Areas of China

Shan Liu1, Xianwu Shi1, Qiang Liu1, Jun Tan1, Yuxi Sun1, Qingrong Liu2, and Hanshuang Guo1 Shan Liu et al.
  • 1National Marine Hazard Mitigation Service, Beijing 100194, China
  • 2North China Sea Marine Forecast Center, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266100, China

Abstract. The warning water level is the default water level at which storm surges may occur along a coast and indicates a stage of alert. This level forms the basis for storm-surge forecasting, and prewarning is an important reference for governments and aids in the decision-making process for storm-surge prevention and disaster risk mitigation. The warning water level has four categories (blue, yellow, orange, and red) based on water level observational data. Taking into account the actual defense capability of the shore, we determined the warning water level by comprehensively analyzing factors, including the high water level at the typical return period of each shore section, wave exposure degree and defense capability of storm surge protection facilities, and the shore section’s importance level. Here, we proposed a quantitative method for determining the warning water level, and the application of this method was introduced by taking the determination of the warning water level at the shore section of Zhifu District (Yantai City, Shandong Province, China) as an example. We analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of the warning water levels for 259 shore sections along the coast and revealed their current marine disaster prevention capabilities. Our findings provide a valid direction for determining future warning water levels and a reliable scientific reference for redetermining warning water levels in coastal areas while improving marine disaster prevention and protection capabilities.

Shan Liu et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2022-130', Anonymous Referee #1, 27 Aug 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2022-130', Anonymous Referee #2, 30 Aug 2022
  • RC3: 'Comment on nhess-2022-130', Anonymous Referee #3, 30 Aug 2022

Shan Liu et al.

Shan Liu et al.


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Short summary
This study proposes a quantitative method for the determination of warning water levels. The proposed method is a multidimensional scale, centered on the consideration of various factors that characterize various coastlines. The implications of our study are not only scientific, as we provide a method for water level determination that is rooted in the scientific method (and there reproducible across various contexts beyond China), but they are also deeply practical.