14 Jan 2022
14 Jan 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal NHESS.

Integrated Seismic Risk Assessment in Nepal

Sanish Bhochhibhoya and Roisha Maharjan Sanish Bhochhibhoya and Roisha Maharjan
  • Department of Civil Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Lalitpur, Nepal

Abstract. As Nepal is at high risk of earthquakes, the district-wide (VDC/Municipality level) study has been performed for vulnerability assessment of seismic-hazard, and the hazard-risk study is incorporated with social conditions as it has become a crucial issue in recent years. There is an interrelationship between hazards, physical risk, and the social characteristics of populations which are significant for policy-makers and individuals. Mapping the spatial variability of average annual loss (seismic risk) and social vulnerability discretely does not reflect the true nature of parameters contributing to the earthquake risk, so when the integrated risk is mapped, such combined spatial distribution becomes more evident. The purpose of this paper is to compute the risk analysis from the exposure model of the country using OpenQuake and then integrate the results with socio-economic parameters. The methodology of seismic-risk assessment and the way of combining the results of the physical risk and socio-economic data to develop an integrated vulnerability score of the regions has been described. This study considers all 75 districts and corresponding VDC/Municipalities using the available census. The combined vulnerability score has been developed and presented by integrating earthquake risk and social vulnerability aspects of the country and represented in form of the map produced using ArcGIS 10. The knowledge and information of the relationship between earthquake hazards and the demographic characteristics of the population in the vulnerable area are imperative to mitigate the local impact of earthquakes. Therefore, we utilize social vulnerability study as part of a comprehensive risk management framework to recuperate and recover from natural disasters.

Sanish Bhochhibhoya and Roisha Maharjan

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on nhess-2021-354', Anonymous Referee #1, 25 Jan 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Roisha Maharjan, 26 Jan 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on nhess-2021-354', Anonymous Referee #2, 02 Apr 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Roisha Maharjan, 10 May 2022

Sanish Bhochhibhoya and Roisha Maharjan

Sanish Bhochhibhoya and Roisha Maharjan


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Short summary
This is a comprehensive approach to risk assessment that considers the dynamic relationship between loss and damage. The study combines the physical risk with social science to mitigate the disaster caused by earthquakes in Nepal taking socio-economical parameters into account such that the risk estimates can be monitored over time. The main objective is to recognize the cause and solutions for seismic hazard building the interrelationship between individual, natural, and built-in environment.