Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2021-268
https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-2021-268

  02 Nov 2021

02 Nov 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal NHESS.

Comparative analysis and implications of sustainable Flood Risk Management in four front-end countries: The United Kingdom, the Netherlands, the United States, & Japan 

Faith Ka Shun Chan1,2, Liang Emlyn Yang3, Gordon Mitchell4, Nigel Wright5, Mingfu Guan6, Xiaohui Lu7, Zilin Wang8, Burrell Montz9, and Olalekan Adekola10 Faith Ka Shun Chan et al.
  • 1School of Geographical Sciences, University of Nottingham Ningbo Campus, Ningbo 315100, China
  • 2Water@Leeds Research Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds LS29JT, UK
  • 3Department of Geography, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU)
  • 4School of Geography and Water@Leeds Research Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds LS29JT, UK
  • 5Nottingham Trent University, 50 Shakespeare Street, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom
  • 6Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong
  • 7Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China & Nottingham University Business School China, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China
  • 8School of Geographical Sciences, University of Nottingham Ningbo Campus, Ningbo 315100, China
  • 9Environmental Geography and Planning
  • 10School of Humanities, York St John University

Abstract. Sustainable flood risk management (SFRM) has become popular since the 1980s. Many governmental and non-governmental organisations have been keen on implementing the SFRM strategies by integrating social, ecological and economic themes into their flood risk management (FRM) practices. However, justifications for SFRM are still embryonic and it is not yet clear whether this concept is influencing the current policies in different countries. This paper reviews the past and present flood management approaches and experiences from flood defence to FRM in four developed countries with the aim of highlighting lessons for developing mega deltas. The paper explored recent strategies such as “Making Space for Water, PPS 25, and NPPF” in the UK; “Room for Rivers” in the Netherlands which was promoted to cope with flooding, integrate FRM with ideas on sustainability, and deliver good FRM practice for next generations. The United States has also established a sound National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), and Japan has developed an advanced flood warning and evacuation contingency system to prepare for climatic extremes. These case studies showed some good lessons to achieve long term SFRM direction to deliver flood management practices with social-economic and environmental concerns. Most of developing coastal megacities especially in Asia are still heavily reliant on traditional hard-engineering approach, that may not be enough to mitigate substantial risks due to human (exist huge populations, rapid socio-economic growth, subsidence) and natural (climate change) factors. We understand different countries and cities have their own interpretation on SFRM, but recommend policy makers to adopt “mixed options” towards thinking about long term and sustainability that with social, economic and environmental considerations. 

Faith Ka Shun Chan et al.

Status: open (until 14 Dec 2021)

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Faith Ka Shun Chan et al.

Faith Ka Shun Chan et al.

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Short summary
Sustainable flood risk management (SFRM) has become popular since the 1980s. This study examines the past and present flood management experiences in four developed countries (the UK, NL, US and Japan) that frequently suffered floods. We analysed ways towards the SFRM among Asian coastal cities, which are still reliant on hard-engineering approach that is insufficient reducing future flood risk. We recommend stakeholders adopting “mixed options” to undertake “sustainability” in FRM practices.
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